MB Tel -Gezerda Kan'on darvozasi

MB Tel -Gezerda Kan'on darvozasi


MUQADDAS KITOB orqali: Xudo Kan'on xalqiga do'l toshlarini tashlagan

Doktor Erik Mitchell Gezer shahrining temir davri darvozasi oldida turib, janubga qaraydi. Bu Isroilda topilgan uchta oltita kamerali shahar darvozalaridan biri (qolganlari Hazor va Megiddo). Bu shaharlarning hammasi shoh Sulaymon tomonidan qurilgan deb ta'riflanadi (1 Shohlar 9: 15-17). Uchta eshik ham bitta quruvchi tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan bo'lishi mumkin. | Doktor Erik Mitchell

Christian Examiner o'quvchilarga janubi -g'arbiy Baptistlar ilohiyot seminariyasida Eski Ahd va Injil arxeologiyasi dotsenti doktor Erik Mitchell bilan Bibliyadagi eng muhim saytlar bo'ylab yurish imkonini beradigan yangi turkumni davom ettirmoqda. Mitchell, Eski Ahdning muhim joyi bo'lgan Tel -Gezerdagi arxeologik tadqiqotlarni boshqaradi. Mitchellning jurnal yozuvlari o'quvchilarga Gezer, Iso yurgan joylar va Dovud filist Go'liyotni o'ldirgan vodiy kabi muhim saytlarni tasavvur qilishga yordam beradi.

TEL GEZER, Isroil (Christian Examiner) - Bu vaqtda mening hayotimda qadimiy Gezer shahri yoki uning yaqinida turgandek his qilaman. Men va men shogirdlarim bilan qadimiy shaharning ko'plab dalalari, yon bag'irlari va bog'larini ko'p marta aylanib chiqdik.

Faoliyatim davomida Isroilda 19 marta bo'lganman. So'nggi to'qqiz yil davomida men Tel-Gezer mintaqaviy tadqiqot loyihasiga rahbarlik qildim, biz Gezerdan 1 km masofada piyoda yuramiz, qadimgi aholi o'z landshaftidan qanday foydalanganini yaxshiroq tushunish uchun.

Biz chegara toshli yozuvlarni, sardobalarni, sharob/zaytun presslarini, qabrlarni, suv manbalarini, karerlarni, tosh otish joylarini, devorlarni va boshqa muhim narsalarni topamiz. Biz barcha ma'lumotlarni tahlil qilib, katalogda va maqolalarda nashr etishni rejalashtirmoqdamiz, shuningdek GPS koordinatalari bilan xaritaga joylashtiramiz.

Gezer Survey guruhi Tel -Gezerning janubi -sharqiy qismidagi maydonda yurish uchun saf tortdi. Tadqiqot loyihasi Isroil qadimiy yodgorliklar idorasi (IAA) va Isroil milliy bog'lari ma'muriyati tomonidan litsenziyalangan va Texasning Fort -Uert shahridagi janubi -g'arbiy baptistlar diniy seminariyasidagi Tendi arxeologiya instituti homiyligida. Janubi -G'arbiy professori Stiv Ortiz va IAA xodimi Sem Volf Telning tepasida qazish ishlarini boshqaradilar. Tadqiqotda ham, qazish loyihasida ham o'z arxeologiyasi magistri va doktorantlari, shuningdek, maktablar konsortsiumining o'qituvchilari va talabalar ko'ngillilari ishlaydi. | Doktor Erik Mitchell

Tel -Gezer 1 -avtomagistralning janubida, Tel -Aviv va Quddus o'rtasida joylashgan. Qadimgi Gezer - erta bronza davridan (eramizdan avvalgi 3500 y.lar) temir asri orqali kanonliklar egallagan muhim shahar.

Isroilning eng yirik shahar darvozalaridan biri (loydan qilingan) Gezerda joylashgan va O'rta bronza davriga (miloddan avvalgi II ming yillikning o'rtalariga) to'g'ri keladi. Xuddi o'sha davrdagi oldingi darvoza ichida ohaktoshdan suv sathiga qadar kesilgan suv tizimi mavjud.

Nyu -Orleandagi Baptistlar ilohiyot seminariyasida Den Uorner MB loyihasini boshqaradi va MB tizimidagi suv tizimini qazadi. Antik davrda Gezer Misr fir'avnining yilnomalarida Tutmos III (mil. Av. XV asr o'rtalari), Amarna harflarida (miloddan avvalgi 14-asr) va Misr fir'avni Merneptaning g'alaba stelasida (yodgorlik) (taxminan 1207 y.) Eslatib o'tilgan. Miloddan avvalgi).

Gezer baland joyi yoki Tel -Gezerning "tik toshlari" (shimolga qarab). Bu toshlar qadimgi shahar aholisi tomonidan diniy joy yoki voqea yoki ahd uchun yodgorlik sifatida o'rnatilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Hodisa yoki ahdning guvohi sifatida toshlarni o'rnatish Muqaddas Yozuvda bir necha bor uchraydi (Yoqub va Lobon Ibtido 31:44 da shunday qilishadi va Xudo Ibtido 35:14 da Xudo unga ko'rinib berganida, Isroil Iordan daryosidan o'tib, toshni o'rnatgan. Yoshua 4). | Doktor Erik Mitchell

Nima uchun bu joy Muqaddas Kitobni o'rganishda muhim? Bu erda bir nechta muhim voqealar sodir bo'ldi!

Gezer muhim joy edi (va hozir ham shunday), chunki u Aijalon vodiysida joylashgan va xalqaro qirg'oq yo'lini (Via Maris) ham, Benjamit platosi va shu tariqa Quddusning markaziy yo'lini ham qo'riqlaydi.

Yoshua Quddusning shimolida joylashgan Benjamit platosining markaziy qismidagi Gibonda Kan'on podshohlari bilan jang qilganida, u Gibonda turib, g'arbga Ayjalon vodiysiga qaradi va shunday ibodat qildi: "Ey quyosh, Gibonda, ey Oyjalon vodiysida oy". (Yosh 10:12).

Isroil kan'onliklarni Ayjalon vodiysi orqali Bayt -Xuron cho'qqisi deb nomlangan tog 'tizmasidan quvib, janubdan Gezerdan o'tib ketdi va Xudo kanonliklarga do'l yog'dirdi.

Quyosh Aijalon vodiysidagi Tel -Gezer ustida botadi. | Doktor Erik Mitchell

Yoshua ibodati ertalab o'qilishi kerak edi, chunki faqat ertalab quyosh tepada va oy hali ham g'arbiy osmonda. Muqaddas Kitobda aytilishicha, quyosh deyarli bir kun turdi va Isroil bu shohlarning barchasini mag'lub etdi.

Ko'p o'tmay Loshish yaqinidagi jangda Yoshua Gezer shohini mag'lub etdi (Yoshua 10:33), u Gezer shahrini zabt etmadi.

Keyinchalik, Sulaymon shoh bo'lganida, Fir'avnning qiziga uylangan (ehtimol, fir'avn Siamun). Bu fir'avn G'ezerni zabt etdi va Sulaymonga fir'avnning qizi uchun mahr qilib berdi. O'sha vaqtdan boshlab, Gezer Isroilga tegishli edi, lekin u Sulaymon vafotidan keyin fir'avn Shishak tomonidan ishdan bo'shatildi (miloddan avvalgi 925 yil).

1908 yilda ekskavatorlar Sulaymon davridan beri toshdan yasalgan kichik yozuvli yozuvli planshetdan muhim ibroniy yozuvini topdilar. "Gezer taqvimi" deb nomlangan bo'lib, u qishloq xo'jaligi faoliyatiga ko'ra yilning oylarini ko'rsatadi.

Yozuv qadimgi isroilliklarning savodxonligi, ibroniy yozuvining rivojlanishi va Isroilning qishloq xo'jaligi iqtisodiyoti masalalarini yoritadi.

Shuningdek, miloddan avvalgi VIII asr o'rtalarida Yahudoda inqiroz yuzaga keldi, u erda Pekax (Samariya shohi/Shimoliy Isroil) va Rezin (Damashq shohi) Axazni (Yahudo shohi) taxtdan tushirib, uning o'rniga shohning o'g'li qo'yishni xohlashdi. Tirdan.

Bu paytda Ishayo Quddusda Oxoz bilan uchrashish uchun chiqib, Xudodan Quddusni bu shohlardan qutqarishini ko'rsatishini so'rashini aytdi (Ishayo 7 ga qarang). Ammo Oxoz imo -ishora so'ramadi!

Bunga javoban, Xudo bola tug'ilishining belgisini va'da qildi. U "Immanuel" (ya'ni "Xudo biz bilan") deb nomlanishi kerak edi.

Oxoz Xudoga iltijo qilishning o'rniga, Ossuriya shohi Tiglat-Pilesar IIIga o'lpon taklif qilib, uni etkazib berishni so'radi. Yahudo shu jarayonda Ossuriya vassaliga aylandi va Tiglat-Pilesar kelib, Damashq, Samariya va Yahudoning bir qismini bosib oldi.

Miloddan avvalgi 733 yil atrofida Gezerni qamal qilib, bosib oldi. Gezer qamalining relyefi Nimruddagi (hozirgi Iroq) Ossuriya qirollik saroyida topilgan.

Xudo Qonunlar 19:14 da Isroil xalqiga shunday buyurgan edi: "Egangiz Xudo sizlarga berayotgan erdan, siz olgan merosda, qo'shnilaringizning o'tmishdoshlari qo'ygan toshini qimirlatmang". Bu 5 -sonli Tel -Gezer chegara toshi, toshlardan biriga misol. Yozuv qarama -qarshi tomonga qaragan ikki qatordan iborat. Bu rasmdagi toshning tepasida u grekcha ALKIOU yoki "Alkiosga tegishli" deb yozilgan. Bu teskari ko'rinadi. Rasmning pastki qismidagi matn ibroniy tilida (o'ngdan chapga) THM GZR yoki "Gezer chegarasi" deb yozilgan. Gezer atrofida o'n uchta "chegara yozuvlari" topilgan - o'ntasi bu yozuv bilan. 13 raqami 2012 yilda "Gezer Survey" loyihasi tomonidan kashf etilgan va vaqt yo'qolgan deb hisoblangan 4 raqami o'sha mavsumda qayta topilgan. Bu chegara yozuvlari bu qadimiy Gezer shahri ekanligini tasdiqlaydi. | Doktor Erik Mitchell

Vasiyatnomalar davrida Gezer Xasmon podsholigi davrida (Makkabiylar davrida, miloddan avvalgi 166 yildan 63 yilgacha) muhim shaharga aylangan. Bu Rim istilosi davrida, Gezer, ehtimol, xususiy mulk bo'lganida, chegara yozuvlari joyiga qo'yilgan.

Gezer qanday muhim shahar edi.

Doktor Erik Mitchell Muqaddas Kitob asoslarini o'z ichiga oladi Xristian tekshiruvchisi. U Texas shtatining Fort -Uort shahridagi janubi -g'arbiy baptistlar ilohiyot seminariyasida Eski Ahd va arxeologiya kafedrasi dotsenti, Isroilda Tel -Gezer mintaqaviy tadqiqot loyihasini boshqaradi.


NOBTS qazish guruhi kanonliklar haqida ko'proq dalil topdi

KARMEI YOSEF, Isroil (BP) — Isroilning Tel -Gezer shahridagi qadimgi suv tizimi Ibrohim va Isroil fathi davrida yashagan O'rta bronza davridagi kanonliklar mahsuli bo'lishi mumkinligi haqidagi dalillar Yangi Orlean Baptistlar Diniy Seminari tomonidan aniqlangan. 8216s (NOBTS) arxeologiya jamoasi yozning qiyin mavsumida.

Muqaddas Kitob Dovud shohi hisoblaridagi Gezer tizimiga o'xshatib qo'yadigan parallellikni taqdim etadi. 2 Shomuil 5: 6-9 da, Dovud odamlari Sion/Quddus qal'asini bosib olish va bosib olish uchun "8220 suv milidan" foydalanishgan. Bu toshdan yasalgan tizim Quddusda va#8220 Dovud shahri hududida joylashgan. Mehmonlar Kan'on tizimining butun uzunligi bo'ylab yurishlari mumkin.

Hamma mavjud ma'lumotlarga asoslanib, NOBTS Gezer qazish kompaniyasi direktori Dan Uornerning fikricha, Devid shahri tunneli va Gezer tizimi ikkalasi ham o'rta bronza asrining mahsulotidir.

Gezer suv tizimini qazish - NOBTS qoshidagi Moskau arxeologiya instituti va Isroil tabiat va bog'lar boshqarmasi (INPA) qo'shma loyihasi. Qazishni NOBTS professori Dan Uorner va INPA bosh arxeologi Tsvika Tsuk birgalikda boshqaradi. NOBTS professori va Moskau instituti ijrochi direktori Jim Parker va professor va Injil tadqiqotlari bo'limi raisi Dennis Koul, shuningdek, may va iyun oylarida uch haftalik qazish mavsumi uchun etakchilikni ta'minlaydilar.

Uornerning hisob-kitoblariga ko'ra, kanoniklar suv tizimini G'ezer va Kan'on shahar-davlati sifatida mashhur bo'lgan paytda qurishgan. Garchi bu Isroil Kan'onni bosib olishidan taxminan 600-700 yil oldin qurilgan bo'lsa-da, suv tizimi Kan'on xalqiga va ularning madaniyatiga va Eski Ahdda juda katta rol o'ynaydigan madaniyatga nur sochadi.

Kan'onlik Gezer, Eski Ahd kitobi Yoshua kitobida yozilgan isroilliklarning fathi haqidagi hikoyada bir necha bor tilga olingan. Eng diqqatga sazovor so'z Yoshua 10:33 da uchraydi. Yoshua va uning odamlari Gezerdan taxminan 20 mil janubda joylashgan Laxish shahriga hujum qilishganda, Gezer qo'shini o'sha shaharga yordamga keldi. Isroilliklar Laxish va Gezer qo'shinlarini mag'lub etib, Gezer shohi Horamni o'ldirishdi.

Kan'onlik Gezer haqidagi yana bir muhim ma'lumot isroilliklar Xudo ularga bergan erni to'liq egallab olmaganligi bilan bog'liq. Yoshua 16:10 da, Injil muallifi isroilliklar Gezerda yashovchi kan'onliklarni tashlab ketmaganliklarini qayd etishgan. Kan'onliklar Sulaymongacha Misr fir'avnidan mag'lub bo'lgunga qadar Gezerni boshqarganlar (1 Shohlar 9: 15-17).

Kan'onliklar zabt etilishidan bir necha yil oldin madaniy tanazzulni boshdan kechirishgan, lekin baribir mustahkam qal'ali shaharlar bilan qo'rqinchli dushman edilar. Suv tizimi, katta mudofaa devorlari va darvozasi bilan bir qatorda, katta texnik nou-xau, muhim muhandislik ko'nikmalari va narsalarni keng miqyosda qurish istagi bo'lgan rivojlangan jamiyatni ko'rsatadi.

Gezer qazish 2015 yil

O'tgan mavsumda tizimdan olingan sopol idishlar o'rta bronza asrining oxiri yoki kech bronza davrining boshidan boshlanadi, - deydi Warner. “ Qanday bo'lmasin, sopol idishlar qo'yilgunga qadar tizimni qazish kerak edi, bu esa O'rta bronza davridagi eng erta sanani beradi. ”

Uornerning ta'kidlashicha, toshdan yasalgan ulkan suv tizimi miloddan avvalgi 2000-yillarda tosh va bronza asboblar yordamida yaratilgan. Ma'lumki, Gezer tizimi eng qadimiylaridan biri bo'lishi mumkin.

“Biz O'rta bronza davridan qadimiy Yaqin Sharqning biron bir joyida bu qadar katta narsa haqida hech narsa bilmaymiz, - dedi Uorner. “Bu tizim yaqin joylashgan boshqa xususiyatlarga juda mos keladi: janubda ulkan darvoza va tosh minorasi va shimoli -sharqda katta turgan toshlar. ”

Gezer devorlari ichidagi suv manbai bo'lgan qadimgi suv tizimi kamida uch qismdan iborat: kalit tuynuk shaklidagi kirish, uzun diagonali mil va havzadan narida joylashgan g'orga cho'zilishi mumkin bo'lgan suv yig'ish havzasi. . Katta suv tizimi kengligi 12 fut va balandligi 24 fut bo'lib, 38 graduslik qiyalikda erga 130 fut cho'zilgan. So'nggi olti yil davomida arxeologlar va ko'ngillilar guruhi qadimiy suv tizimini kim va qachon qurilganligini aniqlash maqsadida bu joyni tadqiq qilishdi.

O'tgan yillarda jamoa oxirgi bronza davri (miloddan avvalgi 1550-1200 yillar) kulolchilik buyumlarining juda zich joylashgan maydoniga duch kelgan. Bu kashfiyot qazish ishlarining rahbarlari va kulolchilik bo'yicha mutaxassis bo'lib xizmat qiladigan Eli Yanni tunnel endi suv manbai sifatida ishlatilmagandan keyin kulolchilik chiqindisi sifatida ishlatilgan bo'lishi mumkin degan taxminni keltirib chiqardi. Nima uchun u suv tizimi sifatida ishlatishni to'xtatdi, bu mish -mishlar bo'lib qolmoqda. Bu yil Yanni miloddan avvalgi 1800-1500 yillar oralig'idagi oxirgi bronza davridagi kulolchilikdan o'rta bronza davridagi kulolchilikka aniq o'tishni payqadi. “ kulolchilik chiqindilari ostida. ” Kulolchilik topilmalari miloddan avvalgi 2000 yilni tashkil qiladi. qurilish sanasi ehtimoli ko'proq, dedi Uorner.

Gezer suv tizimining tarixi

O'rta bronza davrida Gezer kichik bir qishloqdan mustahkam mustahkam shahar-davlatga aylandi. Kan'onliklar shaharni himoya qilish uchun baland tosh devorlar, ulkan minoralar va loydan yasalgan darvoza tizimini qurdilar. Uornerning so'zlariga ko'ra, shahar zo'ravonlik bilan yakun topgan, katta ehtimol bilan fir'avn Tutmos III tomonidan qo'lga kiritilgan, u Gezerni Karnak ibodatxonasi devorlarida fath qilingan shahar sifatida qayd etgan.

Shoh Sulaymon 1000 yil o'tgach, temir asrida yana bir qurilish bumini boshladi. Sulaymon Gezerni qayta qurdi va mustahkamladi, Hazor, Quddus va Megidodagi mudofaani mustahkamladi (1 Shohlar 9: 15-17). Hazor va Megiddo shaharlarida suv tizimlari paydo bo'lganligi sababli, ko'plab arxeologlar Gezer suv tizimi Axab davrida Sulaymondan keyin qurilgan deb bahslashadilar.

Qachon irland arxeologi R.A.S. Makalister bu tizimni 1906-08 yillarda qazib olib, uni O'rta bronza davridagi kan'onliklar bilan bog'lagan. Biroq, uning ibtidoiy arxeologiya usullari Hazor va Megidodagi tizimlar haqidagi qat'iy nazariyalar bilan ko'pchilikni Gezer tizimi haqidagi da'volarini rad etishga olib keldi. Oxirgi dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, Megiddo tizimi Gezer tizimining erta paydo bo'lishi uchun qo'shimcha dalillarni keltirib, O'rta bronza davridagi kan'onliklar mahsulotidir.

Macalister Gezerda qazish ishlaridan ko'p o'tmay, devor devor qulab tushdi va suv tizimini axloqsiz toshlar va qoldiqlar bilan to'ldirdi. U 102 yil davomida tegmagan.

Qazish paytida, Makalister g'orga etib kelish uchun loyli havzaga toshlar qo'ydi. Yo'l Macalister guruhiga g'orga etib borishiga yordam bergan bo'lsa -da, u havzada qolgan materiallarni devor devorining qulashi oqibatida ifloslanishdan himoya qilgan. NOBTS/INPA guruhi 2012 yilgi qazish mavsumida Macalister ’ ning yo'lini topdi. O'tgan to'rt mavsum davomida jamoa Macalister tegmagan joydan sopol idishlar namunalarini olib tashladi.

Qiyinchiliklar va imkoniyatlar

Qazish davom etar ekan, NOBTS/INPA guruhi tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun tizimni ochish rejasi bilan bog'liq bir qator qiyinchiliklarga duch keldi. Ishchilar shu yilning bahorida qadimiy qadamlarni qoplagan qolgan axloqsizlik qatlamini tozalashdi. Qidiruv guruhi ochiq pog'onalarga zarar bermaslik uchun 130 futli katta kontrplak rampasini qurdi, chunki chiqindilar sanoat vint yordamida pastdan tortib olindi. Rampani rejalashtirish, sotib olish va qurish qazishning birinchi haftasini sarfladi.

Bu yil yana bir qiyinchilik suv ko'rinishida keldi va uning ko'p qismi suv tizimi uchun g'ayrioddiy bo'lmaydi. Qazishning ikkinchi haftasida, jamoa havzada chuqur suvga duch kelganida, taraqqiyot sekinlashdi. Bir kuni ertalab jamoa katta idishlar yordamida taxminan 140 gallon suv olib tashladi. Qolgan mavsum to'piq va tizzagacha cho'zilgan suvni qazish bilan o'tdi.

Bu mavsum ham yangi imkoniyatlar olib keldi. Jamoa suv tizimining og'ziga yaqin Kan'on devori bo'ylab joylashgan omborxonalarni qazish uchun ruxsat oldi. Uornerning ta'kidlashicha, suv tizimiga kirish va Kan'on darvozasi va istehkom devorlari orasidagi qoldiqlarni tozalash ikki xususiyat o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni ochib berishi kerak. Bu darvozaga kirish suv tizimiga kirish bilan bir xil darajada bo'lishiga asoslanadi. Yanni bu harakatni nazorat qiladi. Yaxshi yutuqlarga erishildi, lekin jamoa hali ham tizim kirishidan kamida bir metr balandlikda.

Kan'onliklar bunday tizimni qanday qurishlari sir bo'lib qolmoqda. Ko'pchilik bu tizimni Minoanlar, Misrliklar yoki Mesopotamiyaliklar kabi tashqi ta'sirlar bilan bog'lashgan. Ammo O'rta bronza davri bu variantni olib tashlaydi. Uorner, kanoniklar bu texnologiyani ishlab chiqqan deb taxmin qiladi.


Tarkibi

Jerom Ekron Azot va Iamniyaning sharqida joylashganligini yozgan (zamonaviy talqinga mos), lekin u shuningdek, bu shaharni Kesariya Maritimadagi Straton minorasi bilan tenglashtirganini ham aytib o'tgan. Bu Rabbi Abbaxuning Ekronni Megillada (Talmud) Kesariya bilan aniqlaganiga ishora bo'lishi mumkin.

Robinson birinchi marta 1838 yilda arablarning Aqir qishlog'ini Ekron joylashgan joy deb aniqlagan [2] [3] va bu 1913 yilda Xalbet Dikerinni taklif qilgan Makalister va 1922 yilda Qatrani taklif qilgan Olbrayt bahslashguncha qabul qilingan. [3]

Ekronni Tel Mikne/Xirbet al-Muqanna deb aniqlash 1957–1958 yillarda Naveh va Kallay tomonidan taklif qilingan [4] [5] nazariya, 1996 yilgi qazishmalarda topilgan qirollik bag'ishlanish yozuvi asosida keng qabul qilingan. [6]

Tel -Miqne shahri xalkolit davrida va erta bronza asrigacha engil band bo'lgan. 400 yillik tanaffusdan so'ng, faqat yuqori tel ishg'ol etilgach, shahar katta kengayishga uchradi v.Miloddan avvalgi 1600 yil, Kan'onliklar ostida.

Kan'on shahri, miloddan avvalgi 13 -asrda, asosiy jamoat binosi yonib ketgunga qadar, bronza davrining qulashi paytida, dengiz xalqlari bilan bog'liq umumiy vayronagarchilik davrida, qisqargan edi. U temir asri boshida filistlar tomonidan qayta tiklangan, v.Miloddan avvalgi 12 -asr. Temir davrida Ekron Filistiya va Yahudo shohligi o'rtasidagi bahsda chegaradosh shahar edi.

Yangi Ossuriya imperiyasi yozuvlari Ekronga ham tegishli. Miloddan avvalgi 712 yilda Ekronni qamal qilish, Sargon II devorining relyeflaridan birida, uning nomini Xorsoboddagi saroyida tasvirlangan. Ekron Senxeribga qarshi isyon ko'tarib, Quddusdagi Hizqiyoga yuborilgan uning hokimi Padini xavfsiz saqlash uchun haydab yubordi. Senaxerib Ekronga qarshi yurish qildi va ekronliklar Arabistonning shimoli -g'arbiy qismidan Mutsri shohiga yordam so'radilar. [7] Sennaxerib Eltekada qilgan bu qo'shinni mag'lub etish uchun orqaga o'girildi, keyin qaytib keldi va shaharni bo'ron bilan bosib oldi, qo'zg'olon rahbarlarini o'ldirdi va o'z tarafdorlarini asirlikka olib ketdi. Bu kampaniya Senxeribning Xizqiyo va Quddusga mashhur hujumiga olib keldi, unda Senxerib Xizqiyoni Ekronda gubernator qilib qayta tiklangan Padini tiklashga majbur qildi. Eramizdan avvalgi VII asrda Ashdod va Ekron Ossuriya hukmron bo'lgan qudratli shahar-davlatlarga aylanish uchun omon qolishgan. Miloddan avvalgi 604 yilda shahar Neobavilon podshosi Navuxodonosor II tomonidan vayron qilingan va "Akkaron" nomi bilan tilga olinsa-da, 1 Maccabees 10:89 (mil. Av. 2-asr) da eslatib o'tilgan bo'lsa-da, u hech qachon katta hajmda joylashtirilmagan ( "Arxeologiya" bandiga qarang). [8]

Miloddan avvalgi VII asrga tegishli Ekronda kashf etilgan zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarish markazida yuzdan ortiq yirik zaytun moyi presslari mavjud bo'lib, ular qadim zamonlardan beri topilgan eng zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarish markazidir. Kashfiyot shuni ko'rsatadiki, zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarish qadimgi Falastinda yuqori darajada rivojlangan va uning aholisi uchun, shuningdek qadimgi Yaqin Sharqning boshqa qismlari, masalan Misr va ayniqsa Mesopotamiya uchun zaytun moyi ishlab chiqaruvchi yirik ishlab chiqaruvchi bo'lgan. [9] [10]

Ibroniy Injilida Ekron dastlab Yoshua 13: 2–3 da aytilgan:

Bu er hali ham saqlanib qolgan: Filistlarning barcha hududlari va Misrning sharqida, Shixordan shimoliga Ekron chegarasigacha bo'lgan Geshuritlarning hamma hududlari.

Yoshua 13:13 Filistlarning chegaradosh shahri va Filistlarning beshta shahzodasidan birining qarorgohi hisoblanadi va Yoshua 15:11 da Ekronning yo'ldosh shaharlari va qishloqlari haqida so'z boradi. Shahar keyinchalik Dan qabilasiga tayinlandi (Yoshua 19:43), lekin yana Filistlarning ixtiyoriga o'tdi. Bu Filistlar Ahd sandig'ini Isroilga qaytarishdan oldin olib borgan oxirgi joy edi (1 Shohlar 5:10 va 1 Shohlar 6: 1–8). Ark Bayt -Shemeshdagi isroilliklarga etib keldi (1 Shohlar 6:16).

Ekronda Baalning mashhur muqaddas joyi bor edi. Baol ibodat qiladigan Baal Baal Zebub deb nomlangan, uni ba'zi olimlar bog'lashadi Beelzebub, 2 Shohlar 1: 2 dan ma'lum:

[Shoh] Oxaziyo, Samariyadagi yuqori xonasidagi panjaradan yiqilib, yaralangan. Shunday qilib, u o'zi buyurgan xabarchilarni yubordi: "Borib, Ekron xudosi Baal-Zabubdan so'ra, men bu yaradan tuzalamanmi?" (JPS tarjimasi)

Ilyos payg'ambar Axaziyoni ishontirish uchun Baal-Zabubga murojaat qilgani uchun bir necha bor qoraladi:

Isroilda Xudo yo'qligi uchunmi, siz Ekron xudosi Baal-Zabubdan so'rash uchun yubordingizmi? Shuning uchun siz ko'tarilgan karavotdan tushmaysiz, balki o'lasiz. [11]

Ekronning halokati Zafaniyo 2: 4 da bashorat qilingan:

Ekron ildiz otadi.

Tel Miqne-Ekron qazish ishlari Olbrayt Arxeologik Tadqiqotlar Instituti va Quddus Ibroniy Universiteti homiyligida 1981-1996 yillar oralig'ida 14 mavsum davomida, Trude Dothan va Seymur Gitin rahbarligida olib borilgan. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Asosiy tadqiqot yo'nalishi Ikkinchi bronza davrida Filistlar, Isroil, Finikiya, Ossuriya va Misrliklarning o'zaro ta'sirini fanlararo tadqiq qilish edi. , Temir davri I va II.

Xronologik rivojlanish Tartibga solish

Keramika dalillari bu joyda xalkolit va erta bronza davrida mavjudligini ko'rsatadi. Doimiy stratigrafik profil faqat Shimoliy -Sharqiy Akropoldagi yuqori shaharda topilgan (I maydon), MB IIB MB XI qatlamidan boshlanib, Temir IIK I qatlamining oxirigacha cho'zilgan. Pastki shaharda (II, III, IV, V, X maydonlar), miloddan avvalgi XVII asrning XVII-birinchi yarmining XI qatlamidan keyin, temirning boshida VII qatlamga joylashguniga qadar, 400 yillik kasbiy bo'shliq. , taxminan. Miloddan avvalgi 1175 yil. Yana bir kasbiy bo'shliq. Iron I Stratum IV tugaganidan 270 yil o'tgach, taxminan. Miloddan avvalgi 975 yil, quyi shaharda (II, III, IV, V, X maydonlar), u miloddan avvalgi VII asr I qatlamiga qayta joylashtirilgunga qadar. Ekron shahridagi shaharlar Temir I va Temir II da yaxshi rejalashtirilgan bo'lib, ular to'rt xil ishg'ol zonasiga ega edi: istehkomlar, sanoat, maishiy va elita. Miloddan avvalgi VII -VI asrlarda Iron II -ning oxirgi ishi pastki shahardagi III maydonda bitta me'moriy birlik bilan ifodalangan. Rim, Vizantiya va islom davrlarida mavjudligi IV va V dalalarida tasdiqlangan. [19]

Xronologik jadvalni tahrirlash

O'rta bronza davri tahriri

Ma'lum bo'lishicha, o'rta bronza asrining yuqori va quyi shaharlarini qamrab olgan istehkomlar shakllangan. III va X maydonlarda mustahkamlangan devorlarning bir qismi bo'lgan monumental platformalar qazilgan. MB II seramika dalillari, shuningdek, quyi IV maydonda qazib olingan me'moriy qoldiqlar va uchta bolalar idishi qabrlari topilgan.

Kech bronza davri tahriri

Qatlamsiz X -VIII qatlamlar turar joyi faqat shimoliy -sharqiy Akropoldagi I -maydonda topilgan. Bu xalqaro dengiz savdosini tasdiqlovchi Kipr va Mikeniyalik sopol idishlar va Anatoliya kulrang buyumlarini olib keldi. Misrning ta'siri, jumladan, 19 -chi sulolalar muhri va qoraqo'tir bo'lgan dafn marosimida va miloddan avvalgi 14 -asrda Misr fir'avni Amenxotep III ismli va odatda "chinor daraxti xonimi" ga bag'ishlangan qoraqo'tirda ham yaqqol namoyon bo'ladi. Misr ziyoratgohlarining poydevori, keyinchalik temir I fazasida topilgan vorislik. Kan'onlarning oxirgi VIII Stratum shahri zo'ravon olovda vayron qilingan, bu sammitda qattiq yonib ketgan omborxona majmuasi tomonidan tasvirlangan, unda karbonlangan donalar, yasmiq va anjir bo'lgan idishlar paydo bo'lgan.

Men tahrir qilgan temir davri

VII qavat Filistlar tomonidan taqdim etilgan Egey va Kipr yaqinliklari bilan yangi moddiy madaniyat bilan ajralib turadi, dengiz xalqlaridan biri mahalliy Filistin 1 (ilgari Mycenaean IIIC: 1) sopol idishlar bilan jihozlangan. Bunday kulolchilik buyumlari Kipr bixrom idishlari va filistin bixrom idishlari deb nomlanadi.

Qatlamlarda VI -V Filistin 2 (bixrom) sopol idishda qizil va qora bezakli sopol idishlar asosiy qismi hisoblanadi. IV qatlamning moddiy madaniyati Filistin 3 (chirigan) kulolchilik va keramika an'analari, asosan, qizil va sirg'alib ishlangan buyumlar bilan ajralib turadi.

VII qavatdagi shaharning yuqori qismiga loydan yasalgan devor, megaron tipidagi binolar, qalblar, ohaktoshli vannalar va sanoat o'choqlari kiradi. VI -V qatlamlarda asosiy xususiyat loydan qilingan glacis, miloddan avvalgi XII va XI asrlarda Kiprdagi Enkomi va Kition ibodatxonalarida topilganiga o'xshash kesilgan skapula bilan o'ralgan glacis edi.

Pastki shaharda, janubiy tog 'yonbag'rining tizmasida, VI qatlamining temir I loydan yasalgan g'isht devorining orqasida, bir qancha me'moriy birliklar va topilmalar bor edi, ular orasida buqa shaklidagi zoomorfli idish, fil suyagi kesilgan naycha, va bronza pin va igna. Stratum V monumental binosi elita zonasida bo'lgani kabi qurilgan. Ko'pchilik Egey an'analarining davomini ifodalovchi asarlar orasida ko'k rangga bo'yalgan va otning orqa qismi tasvirlangan to'rtburchaklar shaklidagi suyakli blyashka, Miken tipidagi urg'ochi ayol haykalchasi, oltin spiral sochli uzuk, konus shaklidagi muhr muhri bor. ikkita g`azal, fil suyagi tutqichli temir pichoq, ikkita kichik toshli o`choq va ikkita echki bosh suyagi.

Uy -joy binolari IV qatlamda o'zgarmasdan foydalanishda davom etdi va maxsus topilmalarda yuqori shahardagidek kesilgan skapula bor edi.

Shuningdek, quyi shaharda, elita zonasida, VII qatlam bir qator inshootlar, shu jumladan to'rtburchaklar o'choqlar bilan ifodalangan. VI qatlamda dumaloq yuraklar katta jamoat tuzilmasida topilgan, ularda hayvonlarning jangdagi sahnalari bilan bezatilgan dumaloq fil suyagi qopqog'i ishlab chiqarilgan. V qatlamda megaron tipidagi binoda toshli toshli o'choqlar, skameykalar va bamotli uchta xona va qo'ziqorin shaklidagi ikkita tosh ustunli monumental kirish zali bor edi. [20]

Egey urf -odatlariga ko'ra, bitta xonadan 20 ta sharsimon dastgohlar tortilgan. Bu bino, shuningdek, Kiprdan ma'lum bo'lgan diniy stenddan uchta miniatyuradan yasalgan bronza g'ildiraklarini ishlab chiqargan va mexonotning bibliyadagi ta'rifini eslatadi. Yana bir maxsus topilma-bu uchta bronza mix bilan bog'lab qo'yilgan, gilza shaklidagi fil suyagi dastasi bo'lgan temir pichoq. VI va V qatlamlarda qurilish majmuasida katta toshli hammom, monolit, ikkita tosh ustunli poydevor va bir nechta o'choq bor edi. IV qatlamda qurilish majmuasining rejasi qayta ishlatilgan va uning diniy vazifasi davom etgan, bu topilmalar bilan tasdiqlangan, fil suyagi, fayans va toshdan yasalgan buyumlar, shu jumladan bezatilgan quloqchalar va Misr ma'budasi Sekmet tasvirlangan uzuk. 10 -asrning birinchi choragida IV Stratum pastki shaharining vayron qilinishi va tark etilishi Filistinning birinchi shahri va umuman Ekronda temir I ning tugashini ko'rsatdi.

Temir davri II tahrir

Temir I qatlam IV shahar 10 -asrning birinchi choragida vayron bo'lganidan so'ng, quyi shahar tashlab ketildi. Strategiya III-IIda faqat yuqori shahar egallab olingan, devorlari loydan yasalgan va devorlari 7 m bo'lgan, g'ishtdan yasalgan g'ishtli minorasi Finikiya bilan qoplangan. III-qatlam IIA-B monumental arxitekturasida davom ettirildi, unga tosh yotqizilgan markaziy drenaj tizimi qo'shilgan, qayta yotqizilgan ko'chaga ochilgan bir qator xonalar, ehtimol do'konlar yoki savdo rastalari qo'shildi. IIB qatlami.

Ham pastki shahar, ham yuqori shahar qayta ishg'ol qilindi. Pastki shaharda yangi istehkomlar shahar devori va Timna (Tel-Batash), Gezer, Lachish va Ashdodda qazilganlarga o'xshash darvoza bilan himoyalangan uchta kirish eshigi edi. Darvozaning sharqida, shahar devori va tashqi skrining devori o'rtasida katta jamoat binosi bilan bog'langan 80 m uzunlikdagi otxona yoki omborxona qurilgan. Zaytun moyi sanoat zonasi, shahar devorining ichki yuzasi bo'ylab, butun shahar bo'ylab cho'zilgan kamar bilan ajralib turardi. Maxsus topilmalar orasida yaxshi saqlanib qolgan ettita yirik temir qishloq xo'jaligi asboblari va to'qqizta to'rt shoxli ohaktosh qurbongohlari bor.

Ekronda topilgan 115 ta neft presslari 500–1000 tonnagacha ishlab chiqarish quvvatiga ega bo'lib, uni hozirgacha qazib olingan zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarish bo'yicha eng yirik qadimiy sanoat markaziga aylantiradi. VII asrning oxirgi uchdan birida IB qatlamida zaytun moyi ishlab chiqarishning kamayishi, IC qatlamida Ossuriya hukmronligining tugashi va Misrning Filistiyaga ta'sir doirasining kengayishi bilan bog'liq. Miloddan avvalgi 630 yil. [21]

Pastki shaharning elita zonasida, I qatlamda, Isroilda 20 -asrning eng muhim topilmalaridan biri bo'lgan Ekron Qirolligiga bag'ishlangan yozuv muqaddaslarning muqaddas joyida yoki Cellada topilgan. Ma'bad majmuasi 650.

Ma'bad Kiprdagi Kition shahridagi Astarte ibodatxonasi 1 -da joylashgan Finikiya dizaynini aks ettiradi. To'rtburchaklar shaklidagi ohaktosh blokiga o'yilgan Ekron Qirollik tabriknomasi besh qatordan iborat bo'lib, unda Ekron haqida so'z yuritilgan bo'lib, bu joyning identifikatorini tasdiqlaydi, shuningdek, uning beshta hukmdori, jumladan, Padining o'g'li Ikausu (Achish). uning xonimi Ptig uchun muqaddas joy. Padi va Ikausu VII asr Neo-Ossuriya qirollik yilnomasidan Ekron shohlari sifatida tanilgan. Ekron yozuvining tili va yozilish shakli Finikiyaning katta ta'sirini ko'rsatadi va Ikausu nomi "axan" yoki "yunoncha" deb tushuniladi va Ptgyx yunon ma'budasi sifatida talqin qilinadi.

Boshqa maxsus topilmalar ma'badning yon xonalaridan topilgan bo'lib, unda oltin, kumush va bronza buyumlar xazinasi, shu jumladan oltin kobra (uraus) va o'ziga xos fil suyaklari majmuasi topilgan. The ivories include a depiction of a woman, perhaps a royal personage a knob bearing the cartouche of the 12th century Pharaoh Ramses VIII a large head, probably from the top of a harp and a large object with a male figure on the front, the image of a royal female personage on the side, and a cartouche of the 13th century Pharaoh Merneptah on the back.

The buildings of the elite zone also produced 16 short inscriptions including kdš l’šrt ("dedicated to [the goddess] Asherat"), lmqm ("for the shrine"), and the letter tet with three horizontal lines below it (probably indicating 30 units of produce set aside for tithing), and silver hoards.

The entire Iron II city was destroyed in a violent conflagration during the 604 BCE campaign of the Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II, after which the site was only partially and briefly resettled in the first quarter of the 6th century. A well-preserved Assyrian courtyard-type building was the only remaining architectural evidence for Stratum IA. Thereafter, Ekron was abandoned until the Roman period.

Roman to Islamic periods Edit

There is but fragmentary evidence from the Roman, Byzantine and Islamic periods found only in Fields IV Upper and V.

  1. ^Accaron, at Bible Study Tools
  2. ^ C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine. II. London: The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 408.
  3. ^ ab
  4. William F Albright (1921–1922). "Contributions to the Historical Geography of Palestine". The Annual of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem. 2/3: 1–46.
  5. ^
  6. Seymour Gitin and Trude Dothan (1987). "The Rise and Fall of Ekron of the Philistines: Recent Excavations at an Urban Border Site". The Biblical Archaeologist. 50 (4): 197–222. doi:10.2307/3210048. JSTOR3210048. S2CID165410578.
  7. ^
  8. Seymour Gitin (1989). "Tel Miqne-Ekron: A type-site for the inner coastal plain in the Iron Age II period". In Seymour Gitin and William Dever (ed.). Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology. Eisenbraunlar. p. 24. ISBN978-0-89757-049-7 .
  9. ^ S. Gitin, T. Dothan, and J. Naveh, "A Royal Dedicatory Inscription from Ekron," Israel Exploration Journal 47 (1997): 9-16
  10. ^http://www.internationalstandardbible.com/E/ekron-ekronite.html
  11. ^
  12. James, Peter (1985). "Dating Late Iron Age Ekron (Tel Miqne)" (PDF) . 138 (2). Palestine Exploration Quarterly: 85–97. Jurnalga jurnali kerak | jurnal = (yordam)
  13. ^
  14. Borowski, Oded (2003). Daily Life in Biblical Times. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature. 71-72 -betlar. ISBN1-58983-042-3 .
  15. ^
  16. Macdonald, Nathan (2008). What Did the Ancient Israelites Eat? Diet in Biblical Times. W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 23–24. ISBN978-0-8028-6298-3 .
  17. ^2 Kings 1:6, 16
  18. ^ T. Dothan and S. Gitin, Tel Miqne (Ekron) Excavations, Spring 1981, Field INE, Iron Age 1-1, Ekron Limited Edition Series 1, 1981
  19. ^ T. Dothan and S. Gitin, Tel Miqne (Ekron) Excavations, Spring 1982, Field INE, Iron Age 1-1, ELES 2, 1982
  20. ^ B. M. Gittlen, Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavations, 1984, Field IIISE, ELES 3, 1985
  21. ^ A. E. Killebrew, Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavations, 1984, Field INE, ELES 4, 1986
  22. ^ D.B. MacKay, Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavations, 1994 Spring Season, Field IISW: The Olive Oil Industrial Zone of the Late Iron Age II, ELES 5, 1995
  23. ^ A.E. Killebrew, Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavations, 1986-1987, Field INE, Areas 5,6, 7-The Late Bronze and Iron Ages, ELES 6, 1996
  24. ^ N. Bierling, Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavations, 1995-1996, Field XNW, Areas 77, 78, 79, 89, 90, 101, 102: Iron Age I, ELES 7, 1998
  25. ^
  26. Dothan, Trude Gitin, Seymour. "Tel Miqne-Ekron Excavation and Publications Project" (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2015 . Retrieved 17 February 2014 .
  27. ^
  28. "TEL MIQNE-EKRON Summary of Fourteen Seasons of Excavation 1981–1996 and Bibliography 1982–2012" (PDF) . W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2015 . Retrieved 17 February 2014 .
  29. ^ Eitam, D. 1996. The Olive Oil Industry at Tell Miqne–Ekron in the Late Iron Age. In: Eitam, D. and Heltzer, M. (eds.) Olive Oil in Antiquity, Israel and Neighboring Countries, from the Neolithic to the Early Arab Period. Studies VII, Sargon srl: 166-196.

21. Eitam, D. 1996. The Olive Oil Industry at Tell Miqne–Ekron in the Late Iron Age. In: Eitam, D. and Heltzer, M. (eds.) Olive Oil in Antiquity, Israel and Neighboring Countries, from the Neolithic to the Early Arab Period. Studies VII, Sargon srl: 166-196.


Arxeologiya

Archaeological excavation at Gezer has been going on since the early 1900s, and it has become one of the most excavated sites in Israel. In the modern era, the site was discovered by Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau in 1871. R. A. Stewart Macalister dug in the site between 1902 and 1907 on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Macalister recovered several artifacts discovered several constructions and defenses. He also established Gezer's habitation strata, though they were later found to be mostly incorrect (as well as many of his theories). Other notable archaeological expeditions to the site were made by Alan Rowe (1934), G.E. Wright (1964-5, at the head of the Hebrew Union College expedition), William Dever, Yigael Yadin, as well as the Andrews University.

One of the best-known findings is the Gezer calendar. This is a plaque containing a text appearing to be either a schoolboy's memory exercises, or something designated for the collection of taxes from farmers. Another possibility is that the text was a popular folk song, or child's song, listing the months of the year according to the agricultural seasons. It has proved to be of value by informing modern researchers of ancient Middle Eastern script and language, as well as the agricultural seasons.

In 1957 Yigael Yadin identified a Solomonic wall and gateway identical in construction to the remains excavated at Megiddo and Hazor. [ 9 ]

Excavations were renewed in June 2006 by a consortium of institutions under the direction of Steve Ortiz (Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary) and Sam Wolff (Israel Antiquities Authority). The Tel Gezer Excavation and Publication Project is a multi-disciplinary field project investigating the Iron Age history of the ancient biblical city of Tel Gezer.

Canaanite Water Tunnel

In 2010 a team from New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary ("NOBTS") launched an effort to clear a Canaanite Water Shaft first explored by Macalister over a hundred years earlier. [ 10 ] The effort has been chronicled in multiple sources including the Biblical Archaeology Review [ 11 ] and the Baptist Press. [ 12 ] In 2011 Dennis Cole, Dan Warner and Jim Parker from NOBTS led another team in an attempt to finish the effort. [ 13 ] In just two years the teams removed approximately 299 tons of debris from the ancient water system.

In 2010, the team removed approximately 1,040 cubic feet (39 cubic yards – 29 cubic meters) of debris (approximately 50 percent rock and 50 percent dirt) which equated to 336 bags, equating to approximately 68 tons of debris, averaging about 400 pounds per bag. In 2011 the team removed approximately 3,560 cubic feet (132 cubic yards- 101 cubic meters) which equated to 1,372 bags or 231 tons, at about 337 pounds per bag. [14]

Also in 2011 BorderStone Press launched a "Research Israel" project in cooperation with NOBTS to participate in the dig and to document and publish a book on the findings. [ 15 ]


More Canaanite evidence found by NOBTS dig team

KARMEI YOSEF, Israel &ndash Added evidence that an ancient water system at Tel Gezer in Israel could be the product of Middle Bronze Age Canaanites living between the time of Abraham and the Israelite conquest was uncovered by New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary&rsquos archaeology team during a challenging dig season this summer.

Photo by Dan Warner

Light streams into the excavation of the Gezer water system in Israel as New Orleans Seminary volunteers take measurements of the tunnel.

The Bible provides a tantalizing parallel to the Gezer system in the accounts of King David. In 2 Samuel 5:6-9, David&rsquos men utilized a &ldquowater shaft&rdquo to invade and conquer the fortress of Zion/Jerusalem. This rock-hewn system has been located in Jerusalem&rsquos &ldquoCity of David&rdquo area. Visitors can walk the entire length of that Canaanite system.

Based on all the available data, Dan Warner, co-director of the NOBTS Gezer dig, believes the City of David tunnel and the Gezer system are both products of the Middle Bronze Age.

The Gezer water system excavation is a joint project of the Moskau Institute for Archaeology at NOBTS and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA). The dig is co-directed by Dan Warner, an NOBTS professor, and INPA chief archaeologist Tsvika Tsuk. Jim Parker, NOBTS professor and executive director of the Moskau Institute, and Dennis Cole, professor and chairman of the division of biblical studies, also provide leadership for the three-week dig season in May and June.

Warner estimates that the Canaanites likely built the water system during the height of Gezer&rsquos prominence as a Canaanite city-state. Though this would place construction approximately 600-700 years before the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the water system can shed light on the Canaanite people and their culture &ndash a culture which plays a formidable role in the Old Testament.

Canaanite Gezer is mentioned multiple times in the Israelite conquest narrative recorded in the Old Testament book of Joshua. The most notable mention occurs in Joshua 10:33. When Joshua and his men attacked Lachish, approximately 20 miles south of Gezer, the army of Gezer came to that city&rsquos aid. The Israelites defeated Lachish and the army of Gezer, killing King Horam of Gezer.

Another important reference to Canaanite Gezer is connected to the Israelite failure to take the entire land that God had given them. In Joshua 16:10, the biblical author notes that the Israelites &ldquodid not dislodge the Canaanites living in Gezer.&rdquo And though the Israelites set aside Gezer as a &ldquocity of refuge,&rdquo the Bible indicates that the Canaanites controlled Gezer until the time of Solomon when they were finally defeated by an Egyptian pharaoh (1 Kings 9:15-17).

The Canaanites had experienced a time of cultural decline in the years before the conquest but were still a frightening foe with heavily fortified cities. The water system, along with the massive defensive walls and gate, illustrate an advanced society with great technical know-how, significant engineering skills and a desire to build things on a large scale, Warner said.

The 2015 Gezer dig

&ldquoThe pottery retrieved from the system this past season appears to date either from the end of the Middle Bronze Age or the beginning of the Late Bronze Age,&rdquo Warner said. &ldquoEither way, the system had to be dug before the pottery was deposited, giving the earliest possible date in the Middle Bronze Age.&rdquo

The massive rock-hewn water system was created with flint and bronze tools as early as 2000 B.C, Warner noted. Already the largest known of its type, evidence suggests the Gezer system may be one of the oldest.

&ldquoWe know of nothing this massive from the Middle Bronze Age anywhere in the Ancient Near East,&rdquo Warner said. &ldquoThis system fits well with other [Canaanite] features in close proximity: to the south the massive gate and stone tower and to the northeast the large standing stones.&rdquo

The ancient water system, which provided a water source inside the walls of Gezer, consists of at least three parts: a keyhole-shaped entrance, a long diagonal shaft and a basin to collect water which may extend into a cavern located just beyond the basin. The massive water system measures 12 feet wide and 24 feet high at its opening, stretching 130 feet into the ground at a 38-degree slope. For the past six years, a team of archaeologists and volunteers has been investigating the site in an effort to determine who constructed the ancient water system and when it was constructed.

In previous years, the team encountered a highly concentrated area of Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1200 B.C.) potsherds. This discovery led the dig leaders and Eli Yanni, who serves as the dig&rsquos pottery expert, to speculate that the tunnel may have been used as a pottery dump after it was no longer used as water source. Why it ceased use as a water system remains a point of speculation. This year Yanni noticed a clear transition from Late Bronze Age pottery to Middle Bronze Age pottery dating between 1800 and 1500 B.C. under the &ldquopottery dump.&rdquo The pottery finds make a 2000 B.C. construction date more likely, Warner said.

Gezer water system history

In the Middle Bronze Age, Gezer grew from a small village into a heavily fortified city-state. The Canaanites built high stone walls, massive towers and a mud-brick gate system to protect the city. According to Warner, the city met a violent end, most likely at the hands of Pharaoh Thutmose III, who lists Gezer as a conquered city on the walls of the Karnack temple.

King Solomon launched another construction boom in the Iron Age 1,000 years later. Solomon rebuilt and fortified Gezer and strengthened the defenses at Hazor, Jerusalem and Megiddo (1 Kings 9:15-17). Because of the dating of water systems at Hazor and Megiddo, many archaeologists argue that the Gezer water system was constructed after Solomon, during the reign of Ahab.

When Irish archaeologist R.A.S. Macalister excavated the system from 1906-08, he attributed it to Middle Bronze Age Canaanites. However, his primitive archaeology methods along with persistent theories about the systems in Hazor and Megiddo led many to dismiss his claims about the Gezer system. Recent evidence suggests that the Megiddo system also is a product of Middle Bronze Age Canaanites, providing additional evidence for an early dating of the Gezer system.

Shortly after Macalister&rsquos excavation at Gezer, a retaining wall collapsed and refilled the water system with dirt rocks and debris. It remained untouched for 102 years.

During his dig, Macalister laid a &ldquocauseway&rdquo of stones across the muddy basin to reach the cavern. While the causeway helped Macalister&rsquos team reach the cavern, it also protected materials resting in the basin from contamination following the retaining wall&rsquos 1908 collapse. The NOBTS/INPA team discovered Macalister&rsquos causeway during the 2012 dig season. For the past four seasons, the team has been removing datable pottery samples from the area Macalister left untouched.

Challenges & opportunities

As the dig has progressed, the NOBTS/INPA team faced a series of challenges related to the eventual plan to open the system to visitors. Workers cleared the remaining dirt layer covering the ancient steps in the spring of this year. The dig team constructed a massive, 130-foot plywood ramp to avoid damaging the exposed steps as debris was pulled from the bottom using an industrial winch. Planning, acquiring material and construction of the ramp consumed the first week of the dig.

Another challenge this year came in the form of water &ndash lots of it, which would not be unusual for a water system. During the second week of the dig, progress slowed when the team encountered deep water in the basin area. One morning the team removed approximately 140 gallons of water using large jugs. The rest of the season was spent digging in ankle- and knee-deep water.

This season also brought new opportunities. The team received approval to dig in the storerooms located along the Canaanite wall near the mouth of the water system. It is Warner&rsquos contention that clearing the debris between the entrance to the water system and the Canaanite gate and fortifications walls should reveal a connection between the two features. This is based on the fact that the entrance to the gate is at the same level as the entrance to the water system. Yanni is overseeing this effort. Good progress was made, but the team is still at least a meter above the system entrance.

How the Canaanites could build such a system remains a mystery. Many have attributed the system to outside influences such as the Minoans, Egyptians or Mesopotamians. But the Middle Bronze Age dating removes that option. Warner maintains the possibility that the Canaanites developed the technology.

Next year&rsquos dig at Gezer will run from May 22 to June 10 and is open to volunteers. For information about Gezer or for details regarding participation in the 2016 dig, contact Dan Warner ([email protected]) or Dennis Cole ([email protected]) at NOBTS. Those interested in the master of arts degree program in biblical archaeology may contact Warner or Cole for more information.

(EDITOR&rsquoS NOTE &ndash Gary D. Myers is director of public relations at New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary who participated in the Tel Gezer dig the past five years.)


Latest update of NOBTS Gezer dig looks back on last year’s trip

We had a great work day today at all three areas — 50 bags of material were pulled from the water system and the two above ground locations continued to carefully excavate.

At this mid-point of the dig, everyone is equal parts excited, exhausted, and home sick. We still have much to do before we leave and many questions are left that we hope to answer … in the coming week and in the next few years.

For those of you who are not acquainted with the history of Gezer and the history of the site’s archaeology, below is a portion of last year’s report regarding the dig.

Tel Gezer Water System

Added evidence that an ancient water system at Tel Gezer in Israel could be the product of Middle Bronze Age Canaanites living between the time of Abraham and the Israelite conquest was uncovered by New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary’s archaeology team during a challenging dig season in the summer of 2015.

The Bible provides one tantalizing possible parallel to the Gezer system in the accounts of King David. In 2 Samuel 5:6-9, David’s men utilized a “water shaft” to invade and conquer the fortress of Zion/Jerusalem. This rock-hewn system has been located in Jerusalem’s “City of David” area.

Visitors can walk the entire length of that Canaanite system.

Based on all the available data, Dan Warner, co-director of the NOBTS Gezer dig, believes the City of David tunnel and the Gezer system are both products of the Middle Bronze Age.

The Gezer water system excavation is a joint project of the Moskau Institute for Archaeology at NOBTS and the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA). The dig is co-directed by Dan Warner, an NOBTS professor, and INPA chief archaeologist Tsvika Tsuk.

The Big Sifter for the tunnel dirt.

Jim Parker, NOBTS professor and executive director of the Moskau Institute, and Dennis Cole, professor and chairman of the division of biblical studies, also provide leadership for the three-week dig.

Warner estimates that the Canaanites built the water system during the height of Gezer’s prominence as a Canaanite city-state. Though this would place construction approximately 600-700 years before the Israelite conquest of Canaan, the water system can shed light on the Canaanite people and their culture — a culture which plays a formidable role in the Old Testament.

Canaanite Gezer is mentioned multiple times in the Israelite conquest narrative recorded in the Old Testament book of Joshua. The most notable mention occurs in Joshua 10:33. When Joshua and his men attacked Lachish, approximately 20 miles south of Gezer, the army of Gezer came to that city’s aid. The Israelites defeated Lachish and the army of Gezer, killing King Horam of Gezer.

Another important reference to Canaanite Gezer is connected to the Israelite failure to take the entire land that God had given them. In Joshua 16:10, the biblical author notes that the Israelites “did not dislodge the Canaanites living in Gezer.” And though the Israelites set aside Gezer as a “city of refuge,” the Bible indicates that the Canaanites controlled Gezer until the time of Solomon when they were finally defeated by an Egyptian pharaoh (1 Kings 9:15-17).

The Canaanites had experienced a time of cultural decline in the years before the conquest but were still a frightening foe with heavily fortified cities. The water system, along with the massive defensive walls and gate, illustrate an advanced society with great technical know-how, significant engineering skills and a desire to build things on a large scale, Warner said.

The 2015 Gezer dig

“The pottery retrieved from the system this past season appears to date either from the end of the Middle Bronze Age or the beginning of the Late Bronze Age,” Warner said. “Either way, the system had to be dug before the pottery was deposited, giving the earliest possible date in the Middle Bronze Age.”

The massive rock-hewn water system was created with flint and bronze tools as early as 2000 B.C, Warner noted. Already the largest known of its type, evidence suggests the Gezer system may be one of the oldest.

“We know of nothing this massive from the Middle Bronze Age anywhere in the Ancient Near East,” Warner said. “This system fits well with other [Canaanite] features in close proximity: to the south the massive gate and stone tower and to the northeast the large standing stones.”

Asi, the New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary team’s crane operator and barista.

The ancient water system, which provided a water source inside the walls of Gezer, consists of at least three parts: a keyhole-shaped entrance, a long diagonal shaft and a basin to collect water which may extend into a cavern located just beyond the basin.

The massive water system measures 12 feet wide and 24 feet high at its opening, stretching 130 feet into the ground at a 38-degree slope. For the past six years, a team of archaeologists and volunteers has been investigating the site in an effort to determine who constructed the ancient water system and when it was constructed.

In previous years, the team encountered a highly concentrated area of Late Bronze Age (c. 1550-1200 B.C.) pottery sherds.

This discovery led the dig leaders and Eli Yanni, who serves as the dig’s pottery expert, to speculate that the tunnel may have been used as a pottery dump after it was no longer used as water source. Why it ceased use as a water system remains a point of speculation.

This year Yanni noticed a clear transition from Late Bronze Age pottery to Middle Bronze Age pottery dating between 1800 and 1500 B.C. under the “pottery dump.” The pottery finds make a 2000 B.C. construction date more likely, Warner said.

Gezer water system history

In the Middle Bronze Age, Gezer grew from a small village into a heavily fortified city-state. The Canaanites built high stone walls, massive towers and a mud-brick gate system to protect the city. According to Warner, the city met a violent end, most likely at the hands of Pharaoh Thutmose III, who lists Gezer as a conquered city on the walls of the Karnack temple.

King Solomon launched another construction boom in the Iron Age 1,000 years later. Solomon rebuilt and fortified Gezer and strengthened the defenses at Hazor, Jerusalem and Megiddo (1 Kings 9:15-17). Because of the dating of water systems at Hazor and Megiddo, many archaeologists argue that the Gezer water system was constructed after Solomon, during the reign of Ahab.

When Irish archaeologist R.A.S. Macalister excavated the system from 1906-08, he attributed it to Middle Bronze Age Canaanites. However, his primitive archaeology methods along with persistent theories about the systems in Hazor and Megiddo led many to dismiss his claims about the Gezer system.

Recent evidence suggests that the Megiddo system also is a product of Middle Bronze Age Canaanites, providing additional evidence for an early dating of the Gezer system.

Shortly after Macalister’s excavation at Gezer, a retaining wall collapsed and refilled the water system with dirt rocks and debris. It remained untouched for 102 years.

Dr. Warner and Lyn Pruitt working on pottery and artifacts.

During his dig, Macalister laid a “causeway” of stones across the muddy basin to reach the cavern. While the causeway helped Macalister’s team reach the cavern, it also protected materials resting in the basin from contamination following the retaining wall’s 1908 collapse.

The NOBTS/INPA team discovered Macalister’s causeway during the 2012 dig season. For the past four seasons, the team has been removing datable pottery samples from the area Macalister left untouched.

How the Canaanites could build such a system remains a mystery. Many have attributed the system to outside influences such as the Minoans, Egyptians or Mesopotamians.

But the Middle Bronze Age dating removes that option. Warner maintains the possibility that the Canaanites developed the technology.


Canaanite Water Tunnel at Gezer

The Baptist Press recently posted an article about the Middle Bronze II water tunnel at Tel Gezer. The excavation team is currently clearing out the tunnel and conducting a detailed study of it. Below is a picture of the entrance to the tunnel taken in 2004 by Todd Bolen. The tunnel begins to the left of where the man is standing and descends underground past the left side of the picture. (Recent pictures from inside the tunnel are posted with The Baptist Press article.)

Here’s how the article describes the tunnel:

The challenge is excavating a large, rock-hewn water tunnel at Tel Gezer that is believed to have been carved out by Canaanites between 1800 and 1500 B.C. — around the time of Abraham. Tons of debris must be removed from the ancient tunnel before the real work can even begin. …

The Gezer system also is unusually large, measuring 12 feet wide by 24 feet tall, Parker noted. It is believed that the ancient people used donkeys to ferry water from the source to the surface. The width allowed two animals, loaded with jugs, to pass side by side. The height of the tunnel perplexes the expedition team, and they hope to find an explanation as they pursue the dig. …

Last summer the team began the arduous tasks of removing tons of rubble from the tunnel. During a three-week dig, they cleared 72 tons of dirt and rocks. Team members dug out the tunnel and put debris in large sacks which were hoisted out with a crane. Due to the 38-degree slope, Parker compared it to working on a steeply pitched roof.

The Middle Bronze II period was a time when the Canaanite city-states grew strong. Large public works were widespread in the region, such as city walls, massive earthen ramparts, and glacis (i.e., defensive slopes below the city walls). So the cooperation and organization needed to dig a water tunnel was relatively common during that period, but (as the article points out) elaborate water systems were not. Sophisticated water systems (such as the ones at Hazor, Megiddo, and Hezekiah’s Tunnel in Jerusalem) are more characteristic of Iron Age II cities.

Side Note: The article mentions that 1800 to 1500 B.C. is “around the time of Abraham.” The date of Abraham’s lifetime is a debated issue related to the “Early Date vs. Late Date” controversy about the Exodus. The article apparently assumes a Late Date position. My personal conviction (and that of Todd Bolen) is that the Early Date position is the correct one, which would place Abraham’s lifetime at approximately 2150 to 2000 B.C. If this is correct, then construction of the Gezer water tunnel would have occurred during the time of Israel’s 430-year sojourn in Egypt.

The Baptist Press article can be found here. Details about the dig this summer can be found here. The excavation’s homepage can be found here.


Canaanite Medallion Found at Tel Gezer – A Personal Story

A personal story: I remember this amazing discovery well. It was this past June when our archaeological team (comprised of New Orleans Baptist Seminary staff and volunteers) was digging at Tel Gezer. Specifically, we were digging in an area between the huge Canaanite / Middle Bronze tower and the city gate. We suspected that this area was used as a guard chamber for Canaanites living around 1,600 BC. Up to this point in the dig we found a ko'p of pottery (bowls, jar handles, rims from storage jars, etc…) from this “MB II” period. We checked carefully for inscriptions, but did not find any. We were working in two squares. The square I was working on was a smaller probe square just opened this year. Our goal was to see if any stone structure (e.g. wall) could be found at a lower level.

However, it was early on a mid-week morning that a very rare discovery was made in the adjacent square. This square was being worked primarily by only one person, a 22 year old girl (sorry I forget her name now). While we were going down in our square as fast as possible, she was meticulously excavating at the level of a mud floor that was just now being exposed. On this floor was a small clay vessel. The top part of this vessel was already gone, allowing her to spot something of interest laying inside.

The girl in the blue was the one who discovered this amazing find! It was found just behind where she is standing, about 6 inches further down.

At first appearance, what was laying inside looked like packed mud. However, it did have a peculiar shape to it. The lead archaeologists of the dig were then called in to offer their assessment. At this point, they did not know what it was yet either. So with a small brush, she continued to very carefully expose more and more of what it was.

Excitement now was growing for sure. Everyone in our area now put down our shovels and brushes to see her reveal what it was. After official pictures were taken of the item still in its position where it was found, it was carefully secured in hand. Although still very dirty, we could tell it was made of medal, silver and gold! The gold actually still had a faint shine to it, while the silver was tarnished. There gathered in a circle, our eyes were fixed upon what we knew was an very important discovery!

The vessel where archaeologists discovered a Canaanite-era treasure in Tel Gezer. (CLARA AMIT/IAA)

The importance of such a find like this was confirmed by what followed next. Almost immediately, the head of the Israeli Department of Antiquities in Jerusalem (Ronny Reich) was called. Within 45 minutes Dr. Reich was already here at Gezer. Knowing that more technical cleaning and analysis was required to assess exactly what this was, this silver and gold item found in our area was taken back to Jerusalem immediately! In the meantime, we were told by the lead archaeologists to not tell anyone what we found. It was to remain a secret until further notice. We could not even take pictures of it on our own cameras!

This brings us to today when I was so very excited to see a publication about this item for the first time! Now with our find carefully cleaned and analyzed over the last few months by the experts, it is determined that what was found in our area was a silver medallion or pendant with a disc embossed with an eight-pointed star, and an Egyptian scarab coated in gold! This is a very significant find!!

The gold scarab found at Tel Gezer (CLARA: AMIT/IAA)

Archaeologists believe that was found was part of of something ritualistic in nature, and was placed inside the foundations of this room that we excavated in our area as a religious offering. The reason why we could not determine what it was at first was because it was wrapped in woven linen. The patterns that the fabric left behind can still be partially visible on the medallion itself. According to the experts, “the twist of two threads typical of linen weaving from the period can be seen on the fabric, which is unusually well-preserved thanks to having been pressed against the precious metals inside over the millennia.” To date, only two other textile bundles from the Middle Bronze Period have been found in Israel: in Jericho in the Jordan Valley and in Rishon Lezion on the coastal plain.

As stated in the article, “The trove of metals, which had become lumped together over time, was separated into five parts at the Antiquities Authority metal laboratory. Three of the parts were made up of silver pieces such as rings and a chain, but many could not be separated from the clump because of corrosion. The other two parts yielded the silver pendant with a round disc, 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter, embossed with an eight-pointed star in the middle of which is a sphere.”

Prof. Irit Ziffer of Tel Aviv University recognized the symbols as “representing Canaanite gods similar to the Akkadian gods of Mesopotamia, Ishtar and Sin. Ishtar was the goddess of fertility, love and sex, while Sin was god of the moon.”

So I have to say that personally it was exciting to be part of such a significant discovery! To see it being excavated out of the ground and to be one of only a few people to lay my eyes on this find immediately after being covered for the last 3,600 years is quite cool! I hope that next year’s dig (at Shiloh or Gath) offers the same excitement and joy.


City Gates and Lowlands

Today started with breakfast at our hotel just outside of Jerusalem. There was a wide variety of food, from pesto covered pasta to waffles.

Our first stop was at Tel Gezer. We walked among ancient ruins and learned about city gates. In ancient cities, the gate was where the poor and needy went to get the things they needed (since they lived outside of the city). We were challenged to be a gate to the world and people around us.

Gezer

Situated near the International Coastal Highway and guarding the primary route into the Israelite hill country, Gezer was one of the most strategic cities in the Canaanite and Israelite periods. Gezer is a prominent 33-acre site that overlooked the Aijalon Valley and the road leading through it to Jerusalem. The tel was identified as biblical Gezer in 1871 by C. Clermont-Ganneau who two years later found the first of many boundary stones inscribed with the city’s name.

We landed near Bet Shemesh for our second stop. Looking up on the hills where the tribe of Dan lived and where Samson was probably born, we talked about his life and his calling as a Nazirite. Marty challenged us to come off of the mountains and enter into chaos and live in the Sh'phelah. We then descended into an enormous underground cistern for a little while (and the temperature difference was a welcome change).

Beth Shemesh

A border city between Judah and Dan, Beth Shemesh was given to the Levites. Beth Shemesh was the most important Israelite city in the Sorek Valley as it watched both east-west traffic through the Sorek Valley and north-south traffic along the “Diagonal Route.” Recent excavations have shown a thriving city here from the Middle Bronze Age through the Iron II period.

We worked up quite an appetite from so much hiking and stopped for lunch at the Tsidonim Cave area (think park or orchard if there were actually caves, we didn't stay long enough to find out). Fresh pitas, delicious veggies, Israeli juice and, wait for it, Coca Cola was provided for us.

After our bellies were full, we were dropped off on the side of the highway next to a large field. Marty walked us back a ways and told us that we were standing in the place where David killed Goliath. We walked a little farther and talked about the parable of the sower. We hiked still farther (and up a large hill), and found ourselves at an archaeological site that was uncovered very recently (13–15 yrs old). The city is called Shaharym (meaning two gates).

Tel Azekah and Elah Valley

The Brook Elah is famous for the five stones it contributed to the young slinger, David. Some surmise that David chose five stones instead of the one needed in case he needed to face Goliath’s four brothers.

As this is being written, we are on the bus heading to our next hotel for the night (about a two-hour ride). Dinner will be waiting, and boy are we hungry!


Videoni tomosha qiling: Исчезнувшие цивилизации. Финикийцы или Хананеи?