O'rta asrlarda sog'liqni saqlash haqida 10 ta fakt

O'rta asrlarda sog'liqni saqlash haqida 10 ta fakt

Qon ketishini tasvirlaydigan rasm.

Boshingizda teshik borligidan tortib, tunda yostiq ostiga barg qo'yishgacha, O'rta asr sog'liqni saqlash xizmati g'alati va ajoyib edi. Biz anestetiklar mavjud bo'lgan dunyoda yashash baxtiga muyassar bo'ldik, lekin o'rta asrlarda odamlarga omad kulib boqmagan.

O'rta asrlarda tibbiyot va sog'liqni saqlash haqida 10 ta fakt.

Ming yillar davomida qalqonlar turli shakl va o'lchamlarga ega bo'lgan. Ularning dizayni tasodifiy yoki estetik emas. O'rta asrlarda qalqonning evolyutsiyasi, urushning o'zi bu notinch davrda qanday o'zgargani haqida bizga nimani ayta oladi?

Hozir tomosha qiling

1. Erta o'rta asrlarda katarakta operatsiyasi juda og'riqli bo'lgan

Jarrohlar "igna qo'yish" deb nomlangan og'riqli jarayonni qo'lladilar. Anesteziksiz, shifokor odamning shox pardasi chetiga igna kiritdi.

2. Ba'zi anglo-sakson dorivor vositalari samarali davo sifatida isbotlangan ...

"Bald's Leechbook" sahifasi, eski ingliz tilidagi tibbiy matn. Kredit: Cockayne, Oswald. 1865. Leechdoms, Wortcunning va Starcraft of England England / Commons.

Bu sarimsoq, sharob va oxgallni ko'zni tozalash uchun ishlatishni o'z ichiga oladi.

3.… lekin ularda elflar, shaytonlar va tungi goblinlarga davo ham bor edi

Bu Anglo-Sakson davrida sehr va tibbiyot o'rtasida unchalik farq bo'lmaganining ajoyib namunasidir.

4. Jarroh sizning boshingizda teshik ochishni tanlashi mumkin

Ieronymus Bosch tomonidan trepanatsiya tasvirlangan rasm. Kredit: Prado milliy muzeyi / Commons.

Qadim zamonlardan kelib chiqqan usul trepanning deb nomlangan. O'rta asrlarda u turli kasalliklarga davo sifatida ishlatilgan: epilepsiya, migren va turli ruhiy kasalliklarga. Trepanning 20 -asr oxirida tibbiyot texnikasi sifatida ishlatilgan.

5. Ba'zi tibbiy vositalar jozibali xususiyatlarga ega edi

Ular nogironga biror narsa yozishni, yozuvni yoki maxsus yozuvli idishdan ovqatlanishni talab qilishdi.

6. O'rta asr tibbiyotining ko'p qismi qadimgi Yunonistonda paydo bo'lgan

Qadimgi yunon shifokori Galen "O'rta asrlarning tibbiy papasi", Gippokrat ham muhim ahamiyatga ega edi.

Galen Veloso Salgado tomonidan maymunni kesayotgan rasm. Kredit: Nova tibbiyot maktabi.

7. O'rta asrlarda mashhur bo'lgan o'simlik va hayvonlarga asoslangan dorilarDori…

Petrushka ilon chaqishi uchun vosita sifatida qayd etilgan.

8. ... ayniqsa bibariya

"Rosmarino" yoki bibariya, barglari qarama-qarshi bo'lgan va qalin poyasi ustki qismida mayda aksiyali gullari yoki jigarrang tanasi va mayda ko'k gullari bo'lgan yashil shoxchalarning rozetka o'xshash tuzilishi. Kredit: Commons.

O'rta asrlarda Rozmarin har xil kasalliklarni davolaydigan va sog'lig'ini saqlaydigan ajoyib o'simlik deb hisoblangan. Ichida Zibaldone da kanal, XIV asr boshidagi Venetsiyalik kitob, 23 ta bibariya ishlatilganligi, masalan, turli maqsadlarda ishlatilgan.

bibariya barglarini oling va to'shagingizga qo'ying, shunda siz dahshatli tush ko'rmaysiz.

9. Tomas Bekket ziyoratgohiga tashrif buyurish kasallikni davolaydi deb ishonilgan

Tomas Bekketning o'ldirilishi. Kredit: Jeyms Uilyam Edmund Doyl / Commons.

Sent -Tomas Bekket qabri Kanterberi soborida joylashgan bo'lib, O'rta asrlarda Angliyadagi eng mashhur ziyoratgohga aylangan. Muqaddas erga ziyorat qilishdan ko'ra erishish osonroq edi.

10. Ingliz va frantsuz monarxlari davolovchi qo'llari borligini da'vo qilishdi

U qirollik teginishi deb nomlangan va u Uyg'onish davriga qadar davom etgan.

Charlz II qirollik teginishini amalga oshiradi. Kredit: R. Uayt / Commons.

Sarlavha tasviri: Shifokor, bemorga qon beradi. Britaniya kutubxonasi / Commons.


Ushbu maqolada deliryum haqidagi tushunchalarning eng muhimlari, qadim zamonlardan ikkita tasniflash tizimi paydo bo'lguncha ko'rib chiqiladi. Bu kontseptsiyalar prognoz va natijadan kelib chiqadigan muayyan muammolarni qanday hal qilganligi haqidagi savolga alohida e'tibor qaratiladi.

Skriðuklaustur monastirida sifilis bilan kasallanganlar soni kutilmaganda ko'p, chunki jami 198 skeletli skelet majmuasida kasallikka chalingan to'qqiz kishi aniqlangan. Kamida ikkitasida tug'ma sifilis belgilari mavjud. Eng kichigi o'smir edi, lekin u hali ham uchinchi bosqichgacha rivojlangan tug'ma sifilisning og'ir alomatlarini ko'rsatdi.


Sizni XXI asrda yashashdan mamnun qiladigan O'rta asrlar haqidagi 12 ta fakt

Tarix haqida biror narsa biladigan har bir kishi, o'rta asrlar yashash uchun eng yoqimli vaqt emasligini biladi. Albatta, agar siz aristokratiya a'zosi bo'lsangiz yoki hech bo'lmaganda badavlat oiladan bo'lgan bo'lsangiz yaxshi bo'lardi. keyin xavf -xatarlar ko'p edi. Agar sizni o'tmishning qorong'u tomoni qiziqtirsa, bizda siz uchun hamma narsa bor. O'rta asrlar haqidagi bu o'n ikkita faktlar har xil, bezovtalanuvchidan tortib to jirkanchgacha o'zgaradi va sizni zamonaviy davrda yashayotganingizdan xursand qiladi! Ularni tekshirib ko'ring!

Oq rang teriga ega ayollar jozibali ko'rinardi, lekin o'sha paytlarda bo'yanish unchalik rivojlanmagan va bu ko'rinishga erishish uchun ishlatiladigan kukunlarda ko'pincha qo'rg'oshin bor edi, bu esa erta o'limga olib kelgan.

O'rta asrlarda rivojlanmagan yana bir narsa - bu tug'ilishni nazorat qilish. Bo'yiningizga urg'ochi moyak taqib, homiladorlikning oldini olishingiz mumkin deb o'ylagan edilar. Shafqatsiz va samarasiz!

O'rta asrlarda ham vaqt boshqacha edi. Nafaqat turli hududlar (hatto juda yaqin bo'lganlar ham) o'z vaqt zonalariga ega bo'lishdi, quyosh botishi va botishi o'rtasidagi vaqt, xuddi quyosh botishi va chiqishi bilan, 12 ta teng qismga bo'lingan. Bu shuni anglatadiki, yilning tengkunlik kunida, ikki kunni hisobga olmaganda, kunduzgi soat tungi soatga teng emas edi. Hammasi juda chalkash!

O'rta asrlarda sanitariya -tesisat narsa emas edi, shuning uchun odamlar o'z ishlarini palatalarda qilishdi. O'sha paytdagi yagona kanalizatsiya kanallari ko'chaning o'rtasidan oqayotganlari bo'lgani uchun, odamlar pastdagi odamlarga unchalik e'tibor bermay, idish -tovoqlarini derazadan chiqarib tashlashadi. Ko'chada shunchaki yurish juda yoqimsiz ish bo'lardi.

Charlz I davrida ayollarning qoshlari yo'qligi moda edi, shuning uchun xonimlar sochlarini oldirishadi, keyin o'sishni oldini olish uchun har xil loson va iksirlardan foydalanishadi. Qoshsiz moda tugagach, ba'zi ayollar o'zlarini to'g'ri o'stira olmaydilar, shuning uchun ular sichqonchaning terisidan soxta qoshlar yasashdi.

Do'konlarga kirib, bir shisha "Tide '" ni olmaganingiz uchun, kir yuvuvchilar kiyimlarini uydan yasalgan sisli, odamning siydigi bo'lgan kul bilan yuvdilar. Yaxshi!

Deyarli hamma, ko'chada yotgan odamlardan tortib, qal'alaridagi shohlargacha, bitlar bilan kasallangan! Aslida, shuning uchun ham o'rta asrlarda pariklar moda bo'lgan vaqtlar bo'lgan, shuning uchun odamlar oddiy sochlarini oldirishgan va o'rniga parik kiyishgan.

Xudo bergan rahm-shafqatni ko'rsatish uchun, azizlar moxovlarga tashrif buyurib, yaralarini yalab, qoraqo'tirlarini eyishardi. Biz hammamiz kambag'allarga yordam berganimiz uchun, lekin kimnidir yalash qanday yordam berishini ko'rmaymiz.

O'rta asrlarda vilkalar yo'q edi, natijada odamlar qoshiq yoki qo'llarini ishlatishdi.

Akusherlarning tug'ish og'rig'iga yordam berish uchun qo'llagan sevimli qushi burgutdan qilingan.

O'rta asrlarda sartaroshlar ba'zida kichik operatsiyalar va stomatologiyani olib borishgan. Bu xizmatlarni taklif qilishlarini ko'rsatish uchun ular o'z do'konlari tashqarisidagi bayroq ustuniga qonli oq dokani o'rashardi. Bu erda qizil va oq chiziqli ustunga ega bo'lish an'anasi kelib chiqadi.

Hayvonlar ko'pincha odamlar kabi jinoyatlar uchun sudga tortilardi. Biz bu kambag'al jonzotlarga o'z voqealarini aytib berish uchun omad kulib boqishini tasavvur ham qilmaymiz.


Go'zallik tarixi: O'rta asrlar

O'rta asrlarda mashhur bo'lgan go'zallik tendentsiyalari va kosmetika juda qiziq edi. Ular ma'lum materiallar va texnikalar bilan bog'liq bo'lgan xavf va xatarlarga juda katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Ko'pchilik uslublar ayollarni badavlat va badavlat bo'lib ko'rinadigan ko'rinish yaratish uchun yaratilgan.

Bu davrda rangpar teri juda uslubda edi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, odam ochiq havoda ishlashga yoki bog 'ishlarini bajarishga hojat yo'q. Rangsiz teriga turli yo'llar bilan erishildi. Buning bir usuli qon ketish texnikasi edi. Ikkinchisi, ko'pincha teriga toksik bo'lgan kosmetik vositalarni joylashtirish edi.

Engil sochlar modada edi va ayollar bu ko'rinishga erishish uchun ko'p harakat qilishdi. Ko'pchilik peroksidli materiallarni sochlariga qo'yib, quyoshda oqartirishadi. Yuqori peshona chiroyli va shohona hisoblangan. Ko'p ayollar peshonasini katta qilib yaratish uchun sochlarini olib ketishdi.

Pushti lab bo'yog'i ko'pincha terining ochroq ko'rinishi uchun taqilgan. O'rta asrlarning turli davrlarida lab bo'yog'i taqiqlangan va faqat fohishalar kiygan. Ayollar oz miqdorda kiyinar va lablari pushti rangda emasligini tan olishardi.


Gemorroy uchun 7 ta issiq temir

Bir paytlar, agar odam Sankt -Fiakrga (hemoroid va rdquo) qarshi ibodat qilmasa, ular azob chekishiga ishonishgan, siz taxmin qilganingizdek, hemoroid. Agar siz o'sha omadsiz yigitlardan bo'lsangiz, sizni rohiblarga yuborishadi va siz anusga qizil dazmol qo'yadigan odamsiz. Yomon, lekin unchalik og'riqli bo'lmagan alternativa ham unchalik samarasiz edi: ular sizni VII asr Irland rohibining hemoroididan mo''jizaviy tarzda davolangan St-Fiakr va mashhur rokka o'tirishga yuborishadi. Aynan shu sababdan, o'rta asrlarda hemoroidlar "èlquoSaint Fiacre" va "rsquos" kasalligi deb atalgan.

12 -asrga kelib hamma narsa o'zgardi. Yahudiy shifokori Musa Maymonid hemoroid haqida etti bobdan iborat risola yozib, davolanishning hozirgi holatini shubha ostiga qo'ydi. U ancha oddiy usulni buyurdi: hammomda yaxshi namlash.


O'rta asrlar haqida siz bilmagan 10 ta narsa

Bu Magna Karta, Qora o'lim va Yuz yillik urush tomonidan mashhur bo'lgan tarixdagi eng qiziqarli davrlardan biri. Lekin siz haqiqatan ham O'rta asrlar haqida nimalarni bilasiz? Bu erda, London universiteti, Birkbekdagi o'rta asrlar tarixi professori Jon X Arnold sizni ajablantiradigan davr haqida 10 narsani ochib beradi.

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

E'lon qilingan: 2020 yil 14 -may, soat 04:30

Ular hamma ritsarlar yoki serflar yoki ruhoniylar emas edi

O'rta asrlarning ba'zi yozuvchilari o'z jamiyatini "uchta buyruq" ga bo'lingan deb ta'riflagan bo'lsalar -da, namoz o'qiyotganlar, jang qilganlar va mehnat qilganlar - bu taxminan 1100 yildan keyin tobora noaniq tasvirga aylandi.

XII va XIII asrlarda Evropaning aholisi juda ko'paydi, shahar va qishloqlar ancha kattalashdi. Bu davrda Parij qariyb o'n barobar (va London deyarli) o'sdi. Shaharlarda odamlar har xil ishlarga ega edilar: savdogarlar, sotuvchilar, duradgorlar, qassoblar, to'quvchilar, oziq -ovqat sotuvchilari, me'morlar, rassomlar, jonglorlar ...

Qishloqda hamma ham kambag'al "serf" (ya'ni "erkin bo'lmagan" va erga bog'langan) bo'lgani yo'q. Ko'pgina dehqonlar erkaklar va ayollar bo'lib, o'z erlariga ega edilar, boshqalari esa, "erkin bo'lmaganlar", aslida boshqa erkaklar singari, er va tovarlarni sotib olishgan va sotishgan. Albatta, kambag'al, ezilgan serflar bor edi, lekin bu universal shart emas edi.

Odamlar ovoz berishdi

Xo'sh, hech bo'lmaganda ba'zi odamlar. Milliy, vakillik hukumati uchun ovoz berish emas - chunki bu haqiqatan ham o'rta asrlarga tegishli bo'lmagan - mahalliy siyosatdagi ovoz. Frantsiyada, XII va XIII asrlarda va undan keyin, ko'plab shahar va qishloqlar mahalliy darajada kommuna sifatida boshqarilardi va har yili "konsullar" va "maslahatchilar" uchun har yili saylovlar bo'lib turar edi, bu erda erkaklarning ko'pchiligi ovoz berishi mumkin edi.

Italiyaning shimoliy shtatlarida saylov va boshqaruvning yanada murakkab shakli ishlatilgan, ular orasida saylangan amaldorlar ko'p bo'lgan. Ayollar odatda amaldor sifatida tura olmaydilar va ovoz bera olmaydilar, lekin ularning ba'zilari Frantsiya shaharlari g'urur bilan egalik qilgan "erkinliklar" nizomida qayd etilgan.

Cherkov jodugarlar ovini o'tkazmagan

Yomon jodugarning stereotipiga keng ko'lamli jodugarlar va jamoaviy paranoid javob o'rta asr emas, balki asosan XVI-XVII asrlarda topilgan zamonaviy zamonaviy hodisa. O'rta asrlarda jodugarlar ustidan sinovlar bo'lgan va ular XV asrda nemis tilida so'zlashadigan mamlakatlarda keng tarqalgan, lekin ta'qib qiluvchilar cherkovga qaraganda deyarli har doim fuqarolik hokimiyati bo'lgan.

O'rta asrlarning aksariyatida cherkov xodimlarining sehr -jodu haqida bergan asosiy xabari bu ish bermagan ahmoqona bema'nilik edi. Geynrix Kramer sharmandali asar yozganida Malleus Maleficarum XV asr oxirida uning maqsadi odamlarni jodugarlar haqiqatiga ishontirishga urinish edi. Aslida, kitob dastlab cherkov tomonidan qoralangan va hatto 16 -asrning boshlarida ham inkvizitorlar aytilganlarning hammasiga ishonmasliklari haqida ogohlantirilgan.

Professor Ronald Xattonni tinglang, butun dunyodagi jamiyatlar 2000 yildan ko'proq vaqt mobaynida sehr -jodudan qo'rqib yashagan:

Ular Uyg'onish davriga ega bo'lib, eksperimental fanni ixtiro qildilar

Odamlar "Uyg'onish" haqida gapirganda, ular odatda o'rta asrlar oxirida topilgan adabiyot, san'at, arxitektura va ta'limdagi klassik modellarning o'z-o'zini anglashini o'z ichiga oladi. Bu odatda "o'rta asr" dan (erta) "zamonaviy" fikrlash tarziga o'tishimiz usullaridan biri sifatida qabul qilinadi.

Ammo, aslida, o'rta asr ziyolilarida ham klassik ta'lim va ritorikaning "uyg'onishi" bo'lgan. Bu XII asrda bo'lib, ayniqsa, Arastu va boshqa mumtoz mualliflarning asarlarini arab faylasuflari va tarjimonlari orqali uzatilishiga bog'liq edi.

Natijalardan biri bu jismoniy olamga qiziquvchan va mulohazali yondashuvni chaqirish edi, bu esa Rojer Bekonni (c1214-94), boshqalar qatori, jismoniy dunyoni qanday kuzatish va tajriba o'tkazish haqida o'ylashga undadi.


Ular juda uzoq masofalarga sayohat qilishdi va savdo qilishdi

O'rta asr odamlarining aksariyati, ayniqsa qishloqda yashaganlar, kamdan -kam hollarda o'zlari yashagan joydan uzoqqa ketishgan. Ammo keyingi asrlarda ham ko'p odamlar shunday bo'ladi.

O'rta asr odamlari hech qachon sayohat qilmaganlar. Ko'pchilik hajga borgan, ba'zan buning uchun minglab kilometrlarni bosib o'tgan. Va savdo -sotiq bilan shug'ullanadiganlar, albatta, g'ayrioddiy masofalarda tovar orqali dunyoning bir qismini bog'lab, sayohat qilishardi.

Hatto o'rta asrlarning boshlarida ham har xil yuqori toifali tovarlar juda uzoq sohillardan Evropaning turli mamlakatlariga ko'chirilgan: Osiyodan Xitoydan ziravorlar, Yaqin Sharq orqali Evropaga kehribar va Boltiqdan mo'ynalar olib kelingan. Bir nechta jasur sayohatchilar hatto o'z sayohatlari haqida jurnallar yozdilar: Uilyam Rubruk Dunyoning sharqiy qismlariga sayohat 1253 yilda boshlangan uch yillik sayohatini tasvirlaydi, biz hozir Ukraina va Rossiya deb biladigan erlar orqali.

O'rta asrlarda ham immigratsiya bor edi - garchi O'rta asr Angliya aholisi har doim ham Uels, Shotlandiya va Irlandiya immigrantlari uchun qizil gilamni tashlamagan.

Tarixchilar Robin Fleming va Mark Ormrodni anglo-sakson va o'rta asrlarda Angliyaga ko'chib kelganlarning hayotini o'rganishini tinglang:

Ularda ajoyib "xalq" urf -odatlari bor edi

O'rta asrlarning ko'pchilik ommaviy madaniyatini xristianlik shakllantirgan yoki hech bo'lmaganda xabardor qilgan. Ammo, odatda, cherkov tomonidan qabul qilingan, lekin ildizlari ancha eski bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan, juda qiziq odatlar ham bor edi.

Ulardan biri, Evropaning turli burchaklarida, yoz oyi arafasida yonayotgan bochkalarni tepalikka ag'darish edi. Yana biri bug'doyni yangi turmush qurgan er -xotinning boshiga tashlash edi. Xayriya ishlariga pul yig'ish odatiy holdir: "ale yordamini" tutish: bir guruh ale tayyorlash, uni ichish uchun katta ziyofat qilish va ehson yig'ish.

Shubhasiz, bizga "xurofot" kabi ko'rinadigan ko'p narsalar bor edi, ular ko'pincha kasalliklardan yoki hosilning etishmasligidan g'ayritabiiy himoya choralarini ko'rish bilan bog'liq edi. Ammo yozgi festivallar va ales ham kulgiga o'xshaydi.

Siz cherkovda turmush qurishingiz shart emas edi

Aslida, siz deyarli turmushga chiqmagansiz ichida cherkov: nikohini "tantanali" qilishni xohlaganlar odatda cherkov hovlisining darvozasida shunday qilishardi. Ammo har qanday holatda ham, er -xotinlarga cherkov, ruhoniy, bannerlar yoki boshqa diniy atributlar kerak emas edi.

Cherkov, albatta, odamlardan shunday qilishni xohlardi: 12 -asrdan boshlab, nikoh rasmiy marosim deb bahslasha boshlagan (ya'ni, Xudo dunyoda o'zgarish kiritgan). Lekin amalda va qonun bo'yicha, odamlar bir -birlariga uylanmoqchi ekanliklarini aniq e'lon qilib, uylanishdi.

Rozilik bo'lishi kerak edi va ideal holda guvohlar bo'lishi kerak edi (agar tomonlardan birining fikri keyinroq o'zgargan bo'lsa). Ammo siz juda sodda turmush qurishingiz mumkin.

Doktor Salli Dikson-Smitning O'rta asrlardagi "Hayot va o'lim tarixi" bepul virtual festivali doirasida yozilgan o'rta asrlardagi sevgi va nikoh haqidagi ma'ruzasini tomosha qiling:

O'rta asrlarning buyuk mualliflari yozmagan

Biz savodxonlikni bir narsa deb bilamiz, lekin aslida u har xil ko'nikmalarni birlashtiradi, ulardan jismoniy harakat faqat bitta. O'rta asrlarning ko'plarida yozuvchi sifatida ishlash - yozish ishi juda aqlli ish sifatida ko'rilgan va ilohiyotshunoslar va ziyolilar kabi muhim odamlar o'zlarini bezovta qilmasdilar.

Buning o'rniga, ular ovozni aniqlash dasturining o'rta asrlar ekvivalentidan foydalanar edilar: muallif aytganlarini yozadigan yozuvchi.

Ba'zi odamlar unchalik dindor emas edilar

O'rta asrlarda mashhur dindorlikning ajoyib namunalari bor: tasavvuf, azizlar, bayroqlar, ommaviy ziyorat va hk. Ammo odamlar har doim Xudoga va dinga katta e'tibor berishgan deb o'ylash noto'g'ri bo'lardi va o'rta asr odamlari shubhali fikrlashga qodir emas deb o'ylash noto'g'ri edi.

Oddiy odamlarning aniq e'tiqodlarga - avliyolar ko'rsatgan mo''jizalarga, Eucharist tabiatiga yoki o'limdan keyin nima deyilganiga jiddiy qaraganlari haqida ishonchli dalillar mavjud. Bir qator oddiy odamlar, ruh "qondan boshqa narsa emas" deb qaror qilishdi va o'lim paytida g'oyib bo'lishdi. Boshqalar, Xudo o'simliklar va ekinlarni o'stirdi, deb o'ylash uchun hech qanday asos yo'q deb o'ylashdi, faqat tuproqni ishlash va oziqlantirishning tug'ma xususiyatlari.

Odamlar dinga unchalik ahamiyat bermasliklari haqida ko'p dalillar bor - asosan yakshanba kuni cherkovga bormaydilar. 14 -asrning boshlarida bir ispan ruhoniysi o'z episkopiga yakshanba kuni cherkovga deyarli hech kim kelmaganini, balki ko'chalarda o'ynab o'ynayotganini aytdi. Boshqa yozuvlar shuni anglatadiki, yakshanba kuni ertalab hech bo'lmaganda katta bir qismi o'zlarini boshqa joylarda o'tkazgan.

Ular dunyo tekisligiga ishonishmadi

Ehtimol, ko'pchilik buni Viking dubulg'alarida shox yo'qligini bilishadi. Ikkalasi ham Viktoriya davrining afsonalarini tuzadi, shuningdek, xo'jayin yangi turmush qurgan har qanday ayol bilan bir kecha uxlash huquqiga ega edi.

O'rta asrlar tarixini o'rganishni hayratga soladigan narsa shundaki, siz qiyin va tez -tez saqlanib qolgan yozuvlardan ma'lumot olish jumboqlari bilan, o'z taxminlaringizni va meros qilib olingan stereotiplarni o'z tafakkuringizni doimiy tekshirib turish bilan kurashishingiz kerak.

Jon H Arnold, London universiteti, Birkbek o'rta asrlar tarixi professori O'rta asr nasroniyligiga Oksford qo'llanmasi (OUP, 2014). U ham muallif O'rta asr tarixi nima? (Polity, 2008) va O'rta asrlar Evropasiga ishonish va ishonmaslik (Bloomsbury, 2005).

O'rta asrlardagi hayot - kasallik va tibbiyot bo'yicha bir qator ma'ruzalarni tomosha qilish, oziq -ovqat, din, nikoh va jinoyat - bu erni bosing. Bu ma'ruzalar 2020 yil may oyida bo'lib o'tgan "O'rta asrlarning hayot va o'lim tarixi" bepul virtual festivali doirasida yozilgan

Bu maqola birinchi marta HistoryExtra tomonidan 2014 yil noyabr oyida nashr etilgan


O'rta asr tibbiyoti: qorong'u asrlar

476 yilda Gotlarga Rimning qulashi va 1453 yilda Konstantinopolning turklarga qulashi ko'pincha o'rta asrlarning boshi va oxiri sifatida tilga olinadi. Bu davrning umumiy xarakteristikasi “ "Imon yoshi" va "8221" shaxsga bo'lgan ishonchning keskin yo'qolganligini aks ettiradi, lekin oxir -oqibat, bu nima uchun odam o'z kuzatuvlaridan o'rganishga qodir emasligini va hayotni qabul qilganligini tushunmaydi. #8220 iymonda. ”

Har qanday fanlarda tabiat tashqarisidagi kuchlarning injiqliklariga bo'ysunmaydigan sabab va ta'sirning doimiyligiga ishonish kerak. Aynan shu e'tiqod o'rta asrlarda xohlagan va uning etishmasligi fanlarning statik, hatto pasayib borayotgan tabiati, sehr va boshqa tabiiy bo'lmagan hodisalarga qiziqishning oshishi uchun muhim ahamiyatga ega edi. G'arb bosqinchilarining musulmon avlodlari va G'arbning german bosqinchilari: bosqinchi bosqinchilar davriga bezovtalanmagan ta'siri, tez -tez qayd etilsa ham, unchalik ahamiyatli emas edi. Garchi G'arbiy Evropaga arab ilmining intellektual ta'siri X -XI asrdan oldin ahamiyatli bo'lmasa -da, ko'plab german qabilalarining umumiy xususiyati, xususan Italiya, Ispaniya va Gollning madaniy va intellektual muhitini qabul qilish edi. ular bosib olgan xalqlar. Lotin tsivilizatsiyasi, ba'zida er ostiga kirishga majbur bo'lsada, davom etdi.

Barbar bosqinlari

Konstantinopolning shimolidagi kuchli chegara, Germaniya xalqlari uchun sharqdan Slays to'lqini tufayli o'z hududlaridan chiqib ketishga majbur bo'ldi. Gotlar va lombardlar Italiyaning shimoliga kirib kelgach, Slaylar Sharq va G'arbni ajratishni tugatdilar, ular orqali Rim va Konstantinopol o'rtasidagi quruqlik aloqasi saqlanib qolgan Daciyani egallab oldilar.

G'arbiy imperiya parchalanishiga qaramay, Rim qulaganidan so'ng, gotlar, Italiyaning shimolida va Galiyada, ayniqsa Teodoriya davrida Franklar, Lombard va Gotika qirolliklarini barpo etish orqali nisbiy barqarorlikning vaqtinchalik davri aniqlandi. 454-526). Ko'rinib turibdiki, Rimning ko'plab institutlari, hatto Rim hukmronligi ostida bo'lmasa ham, saqlanib qolgan. V -VII asrlarda G'arbiy imperiyaning shimoliy perimetrini bosib olgan german xalqlari - ostrogotlar, lombardlar, franklar, visigotlar - o'z davrasida shaxsiy o'zaro munosabatlarni tartibga soluvchi amaliy Rim yurisprudens tizimini osonlikcha moslashtirdilar. . Bu kodekslarning barchasida sog'liqni saqlash va shifokorlar bilan bog'liq muammolar birinchi o'rinda turadi. Ehtimol, shifokorlar hali ham faqat ruhiy bo'lmagan. To'lovlar deyarli har doim qonun bilan belgilanadi va ular ko'pincha yuqori edi, lekin qonunbuzarlik yoki baxtsizlik uchun jazo ham qattiq edi. Shifokorning huquqlari va jarimalari odatda bemorning darajasiga qarab belgilanadi va vrachlarning o'zlari past darajaga ega bo'lishlari mumkin edi (albatta, "kam o'qitilganlar" orasida emas). Oltinchi asrda Lion va Merida kasalxonalari ruhoniy bo'lmagan boshqaruv ostida bo'lgan.

Lotin tsivilizatsiyasining qoldiqlari tezda bug'lanib ketgan sobiq imperiyaning shimolidagi erlarni egallagan boshqa german xalqlari na Rim qonuni, na Rim tibbiyoti bilan aloqada bo'lgan. Ular orasida g'ayritabiiy kuchlar kasallik tug'dirdi degan ishonch ustunlik qildi. Kasallar ekzorizm so'zidan va shifobaxsh o'simlik moddalarini ichdan va tashqaridan yuborish orqali shifo topdilar. Tevton ayollari davolovchi sifatida juda muhim edi, ayniqsa jangda, qon so'rib. Franklarning shimoli va g'arbidagi kelt xalqlari ruhoniy va davolovchi funktsiyalarni birlashtirgan Druidlarning umumiy rahbarligi ostida edi. Hatto rus dashtlarini joylashtirgan qabilalarda ham xalq tabobati bilan shug'ullanadigan volxava yoki bo'rilar bor edi, ular sehrli kuchlarga juda ishonishardi.

Diniy va tibbiy funktsiyalarni bir -biri bilan bog'laydigan xalq tabobatiga qaytishdan Evropaning shimolida katta istisno Buyuk Britaniya orollarida topilgan bo'lib, uning bir qismini bir necha asrlardan keyin nasroniylik ta'qib qiladigan Yuliy Tsezarning o'zi imperiyaga olib kelgan. Rim imperiyasi o'lim jazosini boshidan kechirar ekan, asli ingliz bo'lgan Sent-Patrik (taxminan 385-461) Irlandiyaning kelt xalqlariga nasroniylikni olib keldi va monastirlik ruhi chuqur ildiz otdi. Qisman Britaniya orollarida Rim ta'siri tugaganligi sababli, Irlandiya rohiblari Italiyaning ham, Sharqning ham monastir jamoalari bilan mustahkam aloqada bo'lib, tezda mustaqillik an'anasini shakllantirdilar. Keyinchalik bu rohiblar missioner sifatida xristianlikni qabul qilib, O'rta er dengizi xalqlari bilan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri aloqasi bo'lmagan ko'plab frank va teutonik Evropani bosib oluvchilar bilan lotin tsivilizatsiyasini tanishtirishlari kerak edi.

VI asr boshlarida Teodorik hukmronligi davrida Italiyaning shimolidagi barqarorlik qisqa muddatli edi. Got va Lombardlar zabt eta olmaguncha, ular mas'uliyatni saqlab qolishgan. Boshqa muhojirlardan farqli o'laroq, ular mahalliy italyan aholisining qolishiga ruxsat berishdi va bir asr ichida istilochilar fath qilinganlarga madaniy jihatdan bo'ysundilar. Garchi Rim institutlarining moslashuvi umumiy yaxshilikka xizmat qilgan bo'lsa -da, qisqa vaqt ichida turli fath etuvchi xalqlar o'rtasida qon va nikoh rishtalariga asoslangan ittifoq parchalanib ketdi. Raqobat boshlandi. Savdoning deyarli butunlay bostirilishi va shahar aholisining erga qaytishi izolyatsion anarxiyani rag'batlantirdi.

Birinchi Rim institutlari orasida huquq va tibbiyot institutlari bor edi. To'g'ri, tobora to'g'rilanmoqda va shifokorlar va bemorlarning har biri o'zini o'zi boqishi kerak edi. Oxir -oqibat, aniq bo'lmagan sabablarga ko'ra, ruhiy bo'lmagan shifokorlar o'z faoliyatini to'xtatdilar. Biroq, G'arbiy Rim imperiyasi poytaxtining Ravennaga ko'chishi natijasida paydo bo'lgan bo'shliqda Rimdagi cherkovning, ayniqsa papalikning ko'tarilishi ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Cherkov o'tmish bilan eng mustahkam aloqani saqlab qoldi va bu uning Sharqiy cherkov bilan aloqasini davom ettirishi bilan mustahkamlandi. G'alabaning, ayniqsa, shimoliy Italiya va Golliya madaniyatining ustun bo'lgan xalqlarining urf-odatlariga bo'lgan ehtiromi, imperatorning huquqiy, ijtimoiy va intellektual tashuvchisi sifatida, Rim cherkoviga hurmat-ehtiromga aylandi. Gotlar atrofidagi anarxik sharoitlar va jamiyatni qayta tiklash urinishlari ketma -ket yo'qolgan yoki hatto bostirilgan.

Monastirlar, tibbiyot va mo''jizalar

Sankt -Benedikt Nursiya, bemorlarni Apollonning qadimiy ibodatxonasi o'rnida, Monte Kassino monastirida o'z buyrug'ini tuzgan qonunlar bilan kasallarga g'amxo'rlik qilishni rag'batlantirdi. Biroq, kasallikni davolash faqat ibodat va ilohiy aralashuv orqali mumkin bo'lganligi sababli, Sent -Benedikt tibbiyotni o'rganishni man qildi. Shunday qilib, Masihning Shifolash Missiyasi kelgusi besh yuz yil mobaynida tibbiy yordamni deyarli to'liq nazorat qiladigan tarzda tashkil etildi.

Aurelius Kassiodor (480-573) Buyuk Teodorikning shaxsiy kotibi bo'lib xizmat qilganidan so'ng, Benediktin buyrug'iga kirdi va Gippokrat, Galen va Dioskoridlarning lotin tarjimalarini, shuningdek, Kelius Avreliyan asarlarini o'rganishni tavsiya qildi. Qisqa vaqt ichida tibbiy yordam ko'rsatish Benedikt tartibining ajralmas qismiga aylandi. Savodxonlik eng kam uchraydigan asrda Benediktlar Lotin dunyosining adabiy an'analarini saqlab qolish uchun ham ongli ravishda harakat qilishdi. Garchi tibbiy risolalar bilan cheklanmagan bo'lsada, ko'pchilik saqlanib qolgan, hatto bu risolalar ular yashaydigan monastirlarda qo'llaniladigan tibbiyot turiga deyarli ta'sir qilmagan bo'lsa ham.

Ko'plab yaxshi ishlab chiqilgan qadimiy tibbiy muolajalar, ayniqsa jarrohlik amaliyoti yo'qoldi va kauterizatsiya ko'plab jarrohlik usullarini almashtirdi. Farmakologiya barcha eksperimental aspektlardan voz kechdi va xalq tabobatining ko'plab turlariga xos bo'lgan soddalashtirilgan o'tga qaytdi. Ammo Benedikt va boshqa buyruqlar G'arbiy Evropa bo'ylab kengayib, kengayib borar ekan, o'tlar bog'i, nusxa ko'chirish uchun yozuvchilar bilan kutubxona va kasalxona deyarli har doim monastirning muhim elementlari bo'lgan.

Britaniya va Irlandiyaning kelt xalqlari monastir turmush tarzini erta qabul qilishgan va hatto Italiya monastirlariga qaraganda Sharq buyurtmalari bilan yaxshiroq va uzoqroq aloqada bo'lishgan. Druidlar o'tmishiga mutlaqo begona bo'lgan yangi din va madaniyatdan kelib chiqqan holda, ular nafaqat Benediktning Lotin tsivilizatsiyasini saqlashga moyilligini, balki VII asrda ham uni Evropa qit'asiga qaytarishni boshladilar. Gollda Kolumban (615 yil vafoti), Shveytsariyadagi Sent -Gall (vafoti 646) va franklar domenidagi Sent -Villibrord (739 y.) Benediktlar ko'plab frank va german qabilalarini o'zgartirib, monastirlarni o'rnatgan, ularning eng ko'zga ko'ringanlari. ulardan Sent -Gall va Fulda bor edi. Hammasi ozmi -ko'pmi Italiyaning Benedikt monastirlariga taqlid qilingan va ruhiy tibbiyot yuksalishiga ishonch hosil qilingan.

Qadimgi imperiyada tibbiy ta'lim markazlari yaqinida tashkil etilgan monastirlar, ko'pincha Italiyadagi Ravenna, Golldagi Lion va Ispaniyadagi Merida singari, imperiya buzilishidan omon qolgan narsalar bilan aloqa o'rnatishga muvaffaq bo'lishgan. VIII asr oxirida Buyuk Karl ko'pgina frank va german qabilalarini yagona boshqaruv ostida birlashtirganda, u nafaqat Papa tomonidan Muqaddas Rim imperatori unvoniga sazovor bo'lish orqali qonuniylikka erishish uchun tashvishlanardi, balki u bilan bog'liq maktablar orqali Lotin tsivilizatsiyasini kengaytirishga intiladi. cherkov va toj. Mashhur inglizlar Buyuk Karl va boshqa zodagonlarning o'g'illarini o'rgatgan Schola Palatiyda emas, balki sobor maktablari tizimida ham, Rim imperiyasi iqtisodiyotiga asoslangan klassik tadqiqotlar va siyosatdan tashqari, tibbiyot ham o'qitilishi kerak edi. papalik.

Bu davrda tibbiy amaliyotning xarakteri va sifati - deyarli butunlay cherkov hukmronlik qilar edi - hech bo'lmaganda zamonaviy ko'z oldida ko'p narsani xohlash mumkin edi. Shifokorlar o'rta asr monastirlari muhitining bir qismiga aylangan bo'lsalar -da, ko'p monastirlarda meditsinalar uchun bo'linmalar mavjud edi (asosiy kasbi tibbiyot bo'lgan yuqori va quyi darajadagi a'zolar), lekin ularning ko'pchiligi ibodat kabi ilmiy bo'lmagan texnikalarga bag'ishlangan. , qo'llarni qo'yish, quvib chiqarish, muqaddas o'yma naqshli tumorlardan foydalanish, muqaddas moy, azizlarning qoldiqlari va g'ayritabiiylik va xurofotning boshqa elementlari.

Reliance upon the quasi-magical was not restricted to medicine in the Middle Ages, but it must be granted that the supernatural was called upon to do more in that field than was common for other human endeavors—even in the “Age of Faith.” The origins of this situation lay only partly in the Healing Mission of Christ. Much of the appeal of Jesus derived from his miracles, the vast majority of which were of a healing nature. Also, as the expected Day of Judgment failed to arrive and problems on earth seemed magnified by plague, war, and economic and political anarchy, people in general felt powerless to help themselves. At first, God was beseeched directly for assistance. The early Church, especially before it became an established church, had little formal organization and though, of course, there were always leaders, no priestly caste with extraordinary functions appears to have existed. However, even after the Crucifixion, miracles continued to be a mainstay of the Church’s development and growth. Although the Grace of God remained the mediator of these miracles, particular holy individuals began to be thought of as intercessors for these actions, and as had been true in the development of the concept of Christ’s divinity, the newer miracles began to be regarded as evidence of the sanctity of the people through whom they were performed. Thus, the substantiation of sainthood progressively required the performance of miracles, which then led to the expectation of further miraculous intervention, even after the death of the individual saint.

The Christian priest’s assumption of many of the roles of the imperial Roman priest after the Church became an established religion accelerated the development of his function of intercessor with God. (The adjective “pontifical” was derived from pontifex maximus, chief priest of pagan Rome.) The process of increasing the distance between the ordinary individual and God accelerated in both East and West. In the Eastern Church during the most sacred portion of the Mass, a screen was (and still is) placed between the congregation and the celebrants.

As the medieval Church relied more heavily on the intercession of saints, the saints themselves gained increased significance and consideration in Church writings, liturgy, and iconography. Although the evangelist St. Luke was himself a physician, the first saints whose intercession was sought almost exclusively for relief from disease were the twins Cosmas and Damian. Born in Cilicia in the third century, they were physicians who in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity provided their services without fee. They suffered a grotesque martyrdom in the year 278 during the reign of Diocletian but soon gained a following, at first in the East and later in the West, for numerous miraculous cures both in life and after death. Furthermore, under the patronage of Emperor Justinian (483-565), the church of their name in Constantinople, modeled on the temples of Asclepios, was open day and night for the cure of the sick by incubatio. Their most famous miracle occurred at a church named after them in a formerly pagan temple at the edge of the Forum in Rome, where they appeared posthumously to replace the gangrenous leg of the church’s sacristan with the leg of a Negro who had died of old age. Their popularity in the West expanded quickly, and they soon gained importance iconographically not only for physicians and surgeons but also for closely related apothecaries and barbers.

Another Eastern saint to gain popularity in both East and West as a patron of medicine was Pantaleon of Nicomedia (d. c. 305). Like Saints Luke, Cosmas, and Damian, Pantaleon practiced medicine among the sick poor without accepting fees. In doing this, and because he was a Christian, he gained the enmity of his pagan colleagues and was put to death. His cult was early established in the East and later spread to Rome and Western Europe. (Ironically, Pantaleon was later associated in Venetian commedia dell’arte with the image of the comic, which slowly supplanted, at least in the West, the concept of the healing saint, and his name even provided the term “pantaloon” for men’s trousers.)

The utilization of saints as intercessors with the divine developed during the period 500-1000 but became even more “specialized” thereafter. The growing belief in the intercessory powers of the Virgin (so-called Mariolatry), especially encouraged by the French troubadors’ cult of chivalry, also supported belief in the efficacy of saints. As we shall see, medicine and the devotion to various saints were to become more intertwined when miraculous cures were to be sought not only of Christian physician martyrs but also of individual saints associated with specific diseases or even parts of the body.


Fon

People with mental disorders have always been recognized as different and treated in various ways. The divergent responses have paved the way for lasting controversy that exists even today. Early medicine men, considering such individuals to be possessed by demons, introduced a technique called trephination. This procedure involved drilling a hole in the head of the individual to let evil spirits out of the body. Many other civilizations independently developed such a procedure. For example, among the remains of the Incas in Peru are skulls with holes and trephination devices.

Madness has been know and feared by society throughout history. Herodotus (484?-420? b.c.), the famous Greek historian, described the madness of King Cambyses of Persia who mocked the gods. Indeed, the idea of mental disorders as religious conflicts evolved early. In Greek mythology Ajax, in a deranged state, slaughtered sheep thinking they were enemy soldiers.

Hippocrates (460-377 b.c.) viewed the body as stable until illness perverted it. He developed the theory of the four humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. These humors were connected to the four ages of man, the four elements, and the four temperaments. Hippocrates classified madness as either mania or melancholy. Mania was characterized by choler or yellow bile, and melancholy, or depression, by black bile. Hippocrates proposed that the treatment of mental disorders should involve restoring the balance of fluids or humors in the body. In addition to bleeding and purging, this could be done by rest, exercise, abstinence from alcohol, and sex.

Both the Greeks and Romans recognized that the mentally ill were capable of causing major social problems, as well as harm to themselves. They made provisions for guardians to take care of the insane. Realizing that these people would hurt themselves or others and could destroy life and property, laws were passed that set specific guidelines. Since there were no lunatic asylums, people with mental illness were a family responsibility. The seriously impaired were restrained at home, but others were permitted to wander in the hope that evil spirits might fly out of them.

In general, those considered crazed were feared and shunned. In the New Testament in is related how Jesus cured the Gadarene demoniac, who spent his years wandering among the tombs. The evil spirits were cast out into a herd of swine, the most despicable of animals for Jews.

Galen (130-200) later discussed hysteria marked by pain and breathing difficulties, which were caused by a wandering uterus in women. In fact, the Greek word for womb is "hyster." The term hysteria developed from the idea of the wandering womb. The cure was marriage.

Greek and Roman medicine served as the foundation of medical knowledge for the next thousand years. Practitioners of the Middle Ages would add their own unique twist to the subject of mental illness.


10 Facts About Healthcare in the Middle Ages - History

The Middle Ages, the period in history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance (roughly 500 to 1400 A.D.), was very much a time of darkness for modern civilization. It was a time in which the church as well as superstition heavily influenced the culture, which in turn stifled development in many areas. One of the fields that remained the most stagnant during medieval times was that of medicine. Because of the church's increasing role in all areas of society during this time, a lot of the previous gains made in the medical field by the Greeks and Romans were abandoned and forgotten.

Doctors were often hard to come by during these times. They could usually be found only in big cities, and the poor or those living in rural areas had to travel long distances to be able to seek treatment. In those areas without access to doctors, there was often a monastery or herb gardener charged with medical care. It was not uncommon for barbers also to double as doctors or dentists this practice continued into the Renaissance and beyond. It was not until the end of the Middle Ages that any regulations were put into place regarding who could and could not practice medicine.

In medieval times, individuals could study in small communities from other doctors of the period, but such education was limited and usually inaccurate. To determine what was wrong with a patient, doctors would focus mostly on the bodily fluids, called "humors." Each of the four bodily fluids (yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm) corresponded to elements in the universe (fire, earth, air, and water, respectively). Depending on what was observed in one's fluids and what an excess or deficiency of those fluids was assumed to represent, the doctor would make a diagnosis.

The four humors theory focused on maintaining a balance within the body. It was believed that at certain times of year, one humor or another had a greater presence in the body. Spring was associated with too much blood, summer with too much yellow bile (urine), autumn with too much black bile (stool), and winter with too much phlegm. If someone was suffering from disease in the spring, for example, a doctor would likely have used the process of bloodletting, or draining some blood from the body. In the autumn, if a person had digestive issues, they might suggest a change in diet. Some treatments were harmless, while others were life-threatening.

A medieval pharmacist, or apothecary, as they were more commonly called, either was a doctor or an herbalist. In the later periods of the Middle Ages, a separation was beginning to take place between the practice of medicine and pharmacy, and eventually, physicians were no longer able to concoct medicines on site: They could only prescribe the remedy and dose, and the herbalist would do the rest. Most medicines were derived from plants. Herbalists would use different seeds, bulbs, fresh or dried leaves, and other plant parts to come up with concoctions meant to treat different ailments. In many cases, they would prescribe medicine based on the shape of the plant they were using a heart-shaped leaf would be used to treat a suspected heart problem, for example.

Disease and sickness were very common in the Middle Ages. People lived in very close quarters and did not understand the importance of hygiene. Diseases that were most widespread were smallpox, leprosy, measles, typhus, and, perhaps most famously, the bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death. Almost all diseases at the time had unknown causes. This made treatment a bit of a guessing game and prevention very difficult.

The bubonic plague in particular left many doctors stumped during this time period. The plague caused black splotches all over the body as well as fever and other flu-like symptoms. It is known now that the disease was spread by fleas that traveled on rats, but the people at the time did not know how the plague was caught. Civilians and doctors thought that it was contagious and set up quarantines, but fleas from the rats continued to spread the disease regardless. The plague ended up killing more than a third of the population of Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

To try to cure the plague, doctors tried an extensive range of treatments. Some prescribed rose water and vinegar to be scrubbed all over the body. Others would cut open the infected buboes (lymph nodes), drain them of any fluid, and apply dried human waste to the site. Doctors also commonly bled patients to try to rid the body of disease. Witchcraft was resorted to when these treatments didn't work.

The Middle Ages were definitely an uncertain time for the practice of medicine. The combination of restrictions from the church, the following of outdated and inaccurate practices from the Greeks and Romans, and the dangerous treatments administered resulted in the unsuccessful treatment of many ailments and a high mortality rate among those who fell ill. Nevertheless, many of the mistakes made by doctors during this period served as a learning experience for physicians of the Renaissance that followed, and advances were able to be made in the field that paved the way for modern medicine.


7 surprising facts about the history of medicine

How did people in the past treat illness, injury and disease? What medicines did they use? Here, Caroline Rance shares seven facts from medicine’s long and often shocking history – from the first general anaesthetic to early caesareans and medicinal leeches…

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

Published: July 4, 2018 at 4:00 pm

Maintaining a comfortable state of health is a goal shared by much of the world’s population past and present, thus the history of health and medicine weaves a thread connecting us with our ancestors’ human experiences. Yet it’s easy to assume that studying it involves either celebrating the ‘eureka moments’ of well-known heroes or laughing at outdated therapies. But, as I set out to show in my book, The History of Medicine in 100 Facts (Amberley Publishing, 2015), medicine’s past features plenty of lesser-known but equally fascinating episodes…

Some of the earliest named doctors were women

Saqqara is a huge archaeological site about 20 miles south of present-day Cairo. Five millennia ago it was the necropolis for the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis, and remains home to one of the oldest surviving buildings in the world – the step pyramid of Djoser.

A nearby tomb reveals the image of Merit Ptah, the first female doctor known by name. She lived in approximately 2,700 BC and hieroglyphs on the tomb describe her as ‘the Chief Physician’. That’s pretty much all that’s known about her career, but the inscription reveals that it was possible for women to hold high-status medical roles in Ancient Egypt.

Some 200 years later another doctor, Peseshet, was immortalised on a monument in the tomb of her son, Akhet-Hetep (aka Akhethetep), a high priest. Peseshet held the title ‘overseer of female physicians’, suggesting that women doctors weren’t just occasional one-offs. Peseshet herself was either one of them or a director responsible for their organisation and training.

Although the barriers of time and interpretation make it difficult to reconstruct the day-to-day practice of Merit Ptah and Peseshet, female doctors appear to have been a respected part of ancient Egyptian society.

Cataract surgery was possible in the sixth century BC

One of the oldest known medical textbooks is the Sushruta Samhita, written in Sanskrit in India. Its exact date is tentative, as no original version survives and it is only known from later copies, but the current consensus is that it was written in around 600 BC. Sushruta is thought to have been a physician and teacher working in the North Indian city of Benares (now Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh). Uning Samhita – a compilation of knowledge – provides detailed information on medicine, surgery, pharmacology and patient management.

Sushruta advises his students that however well read they are, they are not competent to treat disease until they have practical experience. Surgical incisions were to be tried out on the skin of fruits, while carefully extracting fruit seeds enabled the student to develop the skill of removing foreign bodies from flesh. They also practised on dead animals and on leather bags filled with water, before being let loose on real patients.

Among its many surgical descriptions, the Sushruta Samhita documents cataract surgery. The patient had to look at the tip of his or her nose while the surgeon, holding the eyelids apart with thumb and index finger, used a needle-like instrument to pierce the eyeball from the side. It was then sprinkled with breast milk and the outside of the eye bathed with a herbal medication. The surgeon used the instrument to scrape out the clouded lens until the eye “assumed the glossiness of a resplendent cloudless sun”. During recovery it was important for the patient to avoiding coughing, sneezing, burping or anything else that might cause pressure in the eye. If the operation were a success, the patient would regain some useful vision, albeit unfocused.

A ‘tree of life’ tackled scurvy

Trapped in ice near Stadacona (the site of present-day Quebec City) in 1536, Jacques Cartier’s ships weren’t going anywhere. The crews, holed up in a makeshift fort with little access to fresh food, came down with a disease so gruesome that “their mouth became stincking, their gummes so rotten, that all the flesh did fall off, even to the rootes of the teeth, which did also almost all fall out.” They had scurvy, now known to result from a deficiency of vitamin C. Cartier had no idea what to do.

During his first voyage to Stadacona in 1534, Cartier had kidnapped two young men, Dom Agaya and Taignoagny, taking them back to France as proof that he had discovered a new territory. Now that they were home, the men and their community had every reason not to trust Cartier – an attitude that he interpreted as “treachery” and “knavery”.

In spite of this tension, Dom Agaya showed Cartier how to make a decoction from a tree called Annedda and, although the Frenchmen wondered if it were a plot to poison them, a couple of them gave it a go and were cured within days. After that, there was such a rush for the medicine that “they were ready to kill one another”, and used up a whole large tree.

The identity of Annedda is not certain but there are several candidates including eastern white cedar and white spruce. Whatever it was, its nutritional benefits resulted in the sailors’ complete cure.

Cartier repaid Dom Agaya by kidnapping him again along with nine other people. By the time of Cartier’s next voyage – to Canada in 1541 – most of the prisoners were dead, but Cartier informed their relatives that they were living in style in France. The scurvy cure did not gain widespread recognition and the disease continued to claim the lives of sailors for more than 200 years.

If you want a cure for everything, try theriac

Being a king in ancient times was exhaustingly dangerous there was always someone plotting to get rid of you. So, according to legend, Mithradates (aka Mithridates) VI of Pontus (on the shores of the Black Sea in Turkey) attempted to become resistant to poisons by taking gradually increasing doses. He was also reputed to have conducted toxicological experiments on condemned prisoners, culminating in the creation of mithridate – a medicine that combined all known antidotes in one potent formula.

It didn’t work against Roman armies, however, and when Mithradates was defeated by the military leader Pompey in 66 BC, the recipe supposedly arrived in Rome. Emperor Nero’s physician Andromachus developed it into a 64-ingredient composition, which became known as theriac. Most of the ingredients were botanical (including opium), but viper’s flesh was a notable component.

In spite of early scepticism, theriac took off as a prized (and expensive) cure-all. By the 12th century Venice was the leading exporter and the substance had a high profile in European, Arabic and Chinese medicine alike. Its fortunes waned after 1745, however, when William Heberden debunked its alleged efficacy and suggested that enterprising Romans had exaggerated the Mithradates story for their own gain.

Even so, theriac remained in some European pharmacopoeias until the late 19th century.

General anaesthesia helped cancer patients at the beginning of the 19th century

Kan Aiya, a 60-year-old woman, had lost many loved ones to breast cancer. She had seen her sisters die of the cruel disease, so when a tumour formed in her left breast she was well aware of the likely outcome. For her, however, there was a chance of survival – an operation. It was 1804 and she was in the best possible place for surgery – feudal Japan.

Seishu Hanaoka (1760–1835) studied medicine in Kyoto and set up a practice in his hometown of Hirayama. He became interested in the idea of anaesthesia owing to stories that a third-century Chinese surgeon Houa T’o had developed a compound drug enabling patients to sleep through the pain. Hanaoka experimented with similar formulae and produced Tsusensan, a potent hot drink. Among other botanical ingredients it contained the plants Datura metel (aka Datura alba or ‘devil’s trumpet’), monkshood and Angelica decursiva, all of which contain some potent physiologically active substances.

Tsusensan had quite a kick and if you glugged it down willy-nilly you would probably die, but in the correct dosage it rendered patients unconscious for between six and 24 hours, allowing ample time for surgery.

On 13 October 1804, Hanaoka excised Kan Aiya’s tumour while she was under general anaesthesia, going on to operate on at least 150 more breast cancer patients and people with other conditions. Sadly, Kan Aiya is thought to have died of her disease the following year, but had been spared the agony that still characterised surgery in the West.

A ‘leech craze’ hit 19th-century Europe

The medicinal leech has been in use for thousands of years, and is even today considered to be a way of restoring venous circulation after reconstructive surgery. But it was in the early 19th century that the leech really soared in popularity. Led by French physician François-Joseph-Victor Broussais (1772–1838), who postulated that all disease stemmed from local inflammation treatable by bloodletting, the ‘leech craze’ saw barrels of the creatures shipped across the globe, wild leech populations decimated almost to extinction, and the establishment of prosperous leech farms.

Leeches had advantages over the common practice of bloodletting using a lancet – the loss of blood was more gradual and less of a shock for those of delicate constitution. And because Broussais’s followers used leeches in place of all the other medicines at the 19th-century physician’s disposal, patients were spared some harsh remedies that might otherwise have made them feel worse. In 1822, a British surgeon called Rees Price coined the term sangui-suction for leech therapy.

Ugandan surgeons developed life-saving caesarean operations

In 1884, the caesarean section was not a new idea. It dated from the time of the Caesars, for a start, when Roman law required the procedure to be carried out in the event of a woman’s death in childbirth.

Over the centuries, reports occasionally surfaced of caesarean sections saving the lives of both mother and baby, but even after the introduction of antiseptic methods and anaesthesia, caesareans remained a dangerous last resort. So Edinburgh surgeons were surprised to hear a lecture by Robert Felkin, a missionary doctor, about a successful operation that he had witnessed in the African kingdom of Bunyoro Kitara five years earlier.

The operation, Felkin reported, was carried out with the intention of saving both lives. The mother was partially anaesthetised with banana wine. The surgeon also used this wine to wash the surgical site and his own hands, suggesting awareness of the need for infection control measures. He then made a vertical incision, going through the abdominal wall and part of the uterine wall, before further dividing the uterine wall enough to take the baby out. The operation also involved removing the placenta and squeezing the uterus to promote contraction.

Although caesarean operations had been performed in Africa by white surgeons before this date, the procedure appeared to have been developed independently by the Banyoro people – a somewhat discomfiting realisation for a British audience familiar with colonial tales of ‘savages’.

Caroline Rance blogs at www.thequackdoctor.com about the history of medical advertising and health fraud. Uning kitobi The History of Medicine in 100 Facts (Amberley Publishing, 2015) explores medicine’s history in bite-sized topics, from prehistoric parasites to the threat of antibiotic resistance. You can follow Caroline on Twitter @quackwriter and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/quackdoctor

This article was first published by History Extra in 2015


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