Tor AKA -49 - Tarix

Tor AKA -49 - Tarix

Tor

(AKA-49: 7.000 dp. 303; a. 1 6 ", 8 40 mm.; Cl. Artemis; T. S4-SE2-BE1) Vanadu (AKA-49) 1946 yil 18 aprelda Dengiz komissiyasi shartnomasi (MC korpusi 1910) bilan Providence, RIda tuzilgan. , Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc. tomonidan 1946 yil 8-iyunda ishga tushirilgan, xonim J. Genri Gill homiyligida; Harbiy -dengiz kuchlari tomonidan 1946 yil 9 -iyulda sotib olingan va shu kuni foydalanishga topshirilgan, leytenant Komdr. E. B. Uilyams qo'mondon.

Hampton yo'llaridan silkinib ketganidan so'ng, Vanadis 4 -avgustda Nyu -York shtatining Nyuport shahriga etib keldi va u port bilan Xempton yo'llari o'rtasida oldinga va orqaga qatnay boshladi. Dekabr oyining o'rtalarida hujum yuk tashuvchi kema Meksika ko'rfaziga qarab yo'l oldi. Mobile Ala -ga tashrif buyurganingizdan so'ng; Gulfport, Missis; va Jeksonvill, Fla shtati, u Bostonga keldi. 6 fevralda u 1 -chi dengiz okrugining komendantiga inaktivatsiya to'g'risida xabar berdi. Vanadis 1946 yil 27 martda komissiyadan chiqarildi. Uning ismi Dengiz floti ro'yxatidan 1946 yil 5 iyunda o'chirilgan; va 2 iyulda u Dengiz komissiyasiga o'tkazildi.

Jeyms daryosidagi Milliy mudofaa zaxirasi flotida deyarli to'qqiz yillik harakatsizlikdan so'ng, Va. — Vanadis 1966 yil 14 aprelda Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari tomonidan qaytarib olindi va AKA-Is sifatida Dengiz floti ro'yxatiga tiklandi. 30 -iyun kuni u Baltimor shahridagi Baytlahm Steel kompaniyasining hovlisiga kabelni ta'mirlash kemasiga o'tish uchun kirdi. U ARC-4 dizaynini o'zgartirgan; va 1955 yil 14 -noyabrda unga Tor nomi berildi. 1956 yil 3 -yanvarda Tor konvertatsiyasini tugatdi va Comdr yana ishga qabul qilindi. R. H. Tomas qo'mondon.

Kabellarni ta'mirlash kemasi Atlantikada 1966 yilgacha ishlagan. 1967 yil fevralda u Tinch okeani flotiga hisobot berdi va 1968 yilning kuzigacha San -Frantsiskodan kabellarni ta'mirlash va yotqizish ishlarini olib bordi. U 1958 yil sentyabr oyida Atlantikaga qaytib keldi va u erda 1961 yil yozigacha xizmat qildi, u vaqtincha yana Tinch okeaniga tayinlandi. Kabelni ta'mirlash kemasi dekabr oyida Atlantikadagi operatsiyaga qaytdi. 1962 yil bahorida Bostondagi kapital ta'mirdan so'ng, Tor yana bir bor okeanning shimoliy qismida kabelni ta'mirlash bo'yicha Tinch okeaniga yo'l oldi. Oktyabr oyida u Panama Istmusining sharqiy tomoniga qaytib keldi va Karib dengizida kabellarni ta'mirlash va okeanografik loyihalar bilan mashg'ul bo'ldi. Keyingi besh yarim yil davomida Tor Atlantika okeanining g'arbiy qismida va G'arbiy Hindistonda kabellarni ta'mirlash va yotqizishni davom ettirdi. Ba'zida u ko'proq okeanografik loyihalarda qatnashgan. Yarim o'n yil mobaynida u shimoldan Yangi Skotiyaga va janubdan Karib dengizigacha cho'zilgan. Vaqti -vaqti bilan u Meksika ko'rfazida ham operatsiyalar o'tkazgan.

1968 yil 20 aprelda kema Norfolkdan jo'nab ketdi va Panama kanali va San -Diyego orqali Tinch okeanining markaziy qismiga parvoz qildi. U Miduey oroli yaqinida maxsus operatsiyalar o'tkazdi va 24 -kuni Marianalarga Pearl -Harbordan jo'nab ketishidan oldin, 16 -iyun kuni bir necha kun Gavayiga qaytib keldi. U 5 -iyul kuni Guamga etib keldi va keyingi oyni shu orol atrofidagi kabelni ta'mirlashga sarfladi. U 13 -avgustda Pearl -Harborga qaytib keldi va 7 -noyabrda materik tomon qaytguncha Gavayi orollarida operatsiya qildi. Kaliforniya shtatining Long -Bich shahrida qisqa to'xtashdan so'ng, Tor 6 -dekabr kuni Norfolkga qaytib keldi.

Keyingi to'rt yil ichida Tor Tinch okeaniga uch marta joylashdi. 1969 yil avgust oyida, sharqiy qirg'oq bo'ylab etti oylik operatsiyadan so'ng, u Panama kanali va San -Diyego orqali Pearl -Harborga yo'l oldi. Noyabrgacha u Miduey oroli yaqinida operatsiya o'tkazdi, so'ngra Pearl -Harbor, Long -Bich va Panama kanali orqali Atlantikaga qaytdi. 1970 yil fevral oyida u Bostondagi Baytlahm po'lat kemasozlik zavodiga kirib, bir yillik ta'mirlash va ta'mirlash davrini boshladi. 1971 yil fevral oyining o'rtalarida kabelni ta'mirlash kemasi iyun oyining oxirigacha normal ishini tikladi, u yana Tinch okeaniga jo'nadi. U 29 -iyul kuni Gavayiga etib keldi va 9 -avgustda yana Tinch okeanining shimoliy chekkasida, Aleut zanjiri yaqinida kabel operatsiyalari uchun jo'nadi. U ta'mirlash ishlarini oyning oxirida tugatdi va Esquimalt, Britaniya Kolumbiyasi va San -Diyegoga tashriflaridan so'ng, 20 sentyabrda kanalni qayta ko'rib chiqdi va sakkiz kundan keyin Nyu -York shtatining Portsmut shahriga keldi. 1972 yilning etti oyi mobaynida kabelni ta'mirlash kemasi yana sharqiy dengiz qirg'og'i bo'ylab ishladi. 24 -iyul kuni Tor Norfolkdan Tinch okeaniga oxirgi ish joyiga jo'nab ketdi. U 11 -avgustda Kaliforniya shtatining Alameda shahriga keldi va u yerdan noyabr oyining oxirigacha kabel yotqizish ishlarini olib bordi. 24 -kuni kema Alamedani tozaladi. U 4 -dekabr kuni Panama kanali orqali o'tdi va 12 -kuni Portsmutga qaytib keldi.

1973 yil 17 yanvarda Tor dengiz flotida buyurtma qilingan kema sifatida o'zining so'nggi chet el kruizini boshladi. U 10 kundan keyin Angliyaning Suonsi shahriga keldi va portda ikki kun turgandan keyin kabel operatsiyalari uchun dengizga qo'yildi. 14-18 fevral kunlari u Shimoliy qutb doirasi yaqinida kabel operatsiyasini qayta boshlashdan oldin, Shotlandiyaning Muqaddas Loch shahridagi suv osti bazasiga tashrif buyurdi. U o'z vazifasini oyning oxirida tugatdi va mart oyining birinchi haftasida Muqaddas Lochga yana bir bor tashrifidan so'ng AQShga qaytdi. U 17 mart kuni
u Portsmut dengiz kemasozlik zavodiga qaytib keldi va uni harbiy muhofaza qo'mondonligiga topshirish bilan bog'liq voqeani tugatishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishni boshladi.

Tor (ARC-4) 1973 yil 2-iyulda Portsmutda ishdan bo'shatildi va bir vaqtning o'zida harbiy muhr qo'mondonligi qo'riqxonasiga topshirildi. USNS Thor (T-ARC-4) 1974 yil aprel oyigacha Dengiz ma'muriyatiga zaxiraga topshirilgunga qadar, asosan, Tinch okeanida, Harbiy yuk ko'tarish qo'mondonligi bilan ishlagan. O'shandan beri u Kaliforniya shtatining Suisun ko'rfazidagi Milliy mudofaa zaxirasi flotida xizmat qildi.


Meksikada giyohvandlik karteliga aloqador bo'lgan qirq uch ayblanuvchi reket ta'sirida va korruptsion tashkilotda (RICO) fitna uyushtirishda ayblanmoqda. Shtat va federal jinoyatlar, shu jumladan qotillik, o'g'irlash, o'qotar qurol va giyohvand moddalar savdosi buzilishi uchun javobgar bo'lgan shaxslar.

SAN DIEGO, CA —A jinoiy shikoyat bugun ochildi, 43 ayblanuvchini federal reket (RICO) fitnasida qatnashganlikda aybladi. Shikoyatda ko'rsatilgan RICO fitnasi shtat va federal jinoyatlarni, shu jumladan qotillik, qotillik, odam o'g'irlash, odam o'g'irlash fitnasi, talonchilik, talonchilik fitnasi, giyohvand moddalar savdosi va pul yuvish jinoyatlarini o'z ichiga oladi. Shikoyatda ko'rsatilgandek, ayblanuvchilar Arellano-Feliks narkotrafik kartelining bir qismi bo'lgan Fernando Sanches tashkiloti (FSO) a'zolari va sheriklari.

Shikoyat, shuningdek, Kaliforniya shtati Bosh prokurorining Xalqaro aloqalar bo'yicha direktori Xesus Qui & 241ones Markesning FSOning noqonuniy xatti -harakatlaridan xabardor bo'lganligi va o'z lavozimidan huquqni muhofaza qilish organlarining maxfiy ma'lumotlarini olish uchun foydalanganligi haqida gapiradi. FSO. Shikoyatga ko'ra, u FSOning turli raqiblarini Meksika huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari xodimlari tomonidan hibsga olinishi va hibsga olinishi uchun shartnoma tuzish bilan shug'ullangan.

Bu ayblovlar San-Diyegodagi chegara zo'ravonligi bo'yicha zo'ravonlik bo'yicha ishchi guruhi (CBVTF) tomonidan o'tkazilgan “Operatsiya Luz Verde ” (yashil chiroq) nomli uzoq muddatli tergovdan kelib chiqadi. AQSh va Meksikaga ta'sir ko'rsatadigan jinoyatchilik bilan bog'liq zo'ravonlik harakatlari. CBVTFga tayinlangan huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari xodimlari bu ish bo'yicha ayblovlarni keltirib chiqargan dalillar to'plamini ishlab chiqish uchun sud tomonidan tasdiqlangan tinglash va boshqa murakkab tergov usullaridan keng foydalanishgan.

“San-Diegoda xorijda joylashgan giyohvand moddalar savdosi bilan shug'ullanuvchi tashkilot a'zolari va sheriklarining borligiga yo'l qo'yilmaydi. San-Diyegodagi huquqni muhofaza qilish hamjamiyati har bir aktivdan foydalanadi, chunki bu go'zal shahar hech qachon giyohvand moddalar savdosi bilan shug'ullanuvchi tashkilotlar giyohvandlik urushi va huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari nazorati narkobiznesni to'xtatadigan xavfsiz joyga aylanmaydi. Bu odam savdogarlariga bizning ko'chalarda yurishga va mahallalarimizda yashashga ruxsat berilmaydi va biz, albatta, o'z jamoalarimizda giyohvandlik bilan bog'liq zo'ravonliklarning tarqalishiga toqat qilmaymiz. Biz ularning faoliyatini buzishga sodiqmiz va bu erda ularning kundalik jinoiy xatti-harakatlarini to'xtatish uchun bor kuchimizni jamlaymiz,-dedi AQSh prokurori Laura E. Daffi.

FBRning maxsus agenti Keyt Slotter izoh berdi: “Bugungi hibsga olishlar uzoq muddatli ko'p idorali tergov natijasidir. Bu xavfli va zo'ravon jinoiy korxona bilan kurashish uchun hukumatning barcha darajalaridagi agentliklarning maxsus xodimlari bir ovozdan harakat qilishdi. Bugun bizni mahalliy jamoalar xavfsizligi va farovonligiga ta'sir qiladigan o'nlab hibsga olishlar bilan taqdirlashdi. ”

Bu tergov yakunida qo'lga olingan hibslar DEA va huquqni muhofaza qilish bo'yicha hamkorlarimizning har bir darajadagi giyohvand moddalar savdosi bilan shug'ullanuvchi tashkilotlarni yo'q qilish majburiyatini ko'rsatadi, ” “San -Diyego fuqarolari bugun bu zo'ravon jinoyatchilar ko'chamizdan tashqarida ekanligini bilib, o'zlarini xavfsizroq his qilishlari mumkin. ”

“San -Diego politsiya boshqarmasi bunday muvaffaqiyatli operatsiyada qatnashganidan faxrlanadi. San -Diego huquq -tartibot organlarining uyushgan jinoyatchilikka yuborayotgan xabari aniq: San -Diego shahrida chegaralararo zo'ravonlik va kartel harakatlariga yo'l qo'yilmaydi, ” dedi San -Diego politsiyasi boshlig'i Uilyam Lansdaun. “San -Diegoda rejalashtirilgan, muvofiqlashtiriladigan yoki o'tkaziladigan jinoiy korxonaning har qanday qismi tekshiriladi va javobgarlikka tortiladi va San -Diyegoni fuqarolarimiz va mehmonlarimiz uchun Amerikaning eng xavfsiz shaharlaridan biri sifatida saqlaydi. Kartellar xato qilmasligi kerak: bizning biznesimiz o'z biznesini tugatishdir. ”

“ATF, Meksika kartellariga huquqni muhofaza qilish organlari va begunoh fuqarolarni o'ldirish uchun asbob -uskunalar etkazib beradigan zo'ravon jinoiy tashkilotni to'xtatishda ishtirok etdi. (ATF). “ATFning vazifasi - bu mamlakatda zo'ravon jinoyatlarning oldini olish va Meksikaga noqonuniy o'qotar qurollarning o'tishini oldini olish. ”

Shikoyat (ish raqami: 10MJ2489) quyidagi ayblanuvchilarga 18 -sarlavha, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari kodeksi, 1962 (d) bo'limi bilan ayblov qo'yadi va agar aybdor deb topilsa, ular 20 yillik qamoq jazosiga hukm qilinadi:

Armando Villareal Heredia, aka Gordo Yoshi: 32 Gvadalaxara, Meksika
Ruben Dario Kastro Peres, aka Compadre Yoshi: 35 Federal vasiylik
Ivan Candelario Magana Heredia, aka Soldado Yoshi: 33 Gvadalaxara, Meksika
Xose Alfredo Najera Gil Yoshi: 33 Tixuana, Meksika
Karlos Kosma Yoshi: 34 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Mario Escamilla, aka Unico Yoshi: 29 Davlat vasiyligi
Ignasio Eskamilla Estrada, aka Uno Yoshi: 49 Tixuana, Meksika
Fausto Eskamilla, toliblar Yoshi: 25 Meksika qamoqxonasi
Edgar Gustavo Eskamilla, vafot etdi Yoshi: 28 Meksika qamoqxonasi
Xesus Xinones Markes, aka Rinon Yoshi: 49 Tixuana, Meksika
Xose Antonio Ortega Nuno Yoshi: 44 Tixuana, Meksika
Edgar Lopez De-Anda Daher, aka Pollito Yoshi: 28 Tixuana, Meksika
Xose Alejandro Florez Meza, aka Shakira Yoshi: Buyuk Britaniya Tixuana, Meksika
Alisiya Martines, aka Komadre Yoshi: 33 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Xuan Karlos Magana Heredia Yoshi: 29 Federal vasiylik
Oskar Daniel Montoya Mora Yoshi: 28 Tixuana, Meksika
Xorxe Alberto Pons, aka Betote Yoshi: Buyuk Britaniya Tixuana, Meksika
Mikael Daniel Blaser, aka muammolar Yoshi: 20 Poway, Kaliforniya
Jonatan Valle, aka O'roqchi Yoshi: 25 Federal vasiylik
Armando Kastillo, aka Choco Yoshi: 20 Federal vasiylik
Umar Martines, aka Nino Yoshi: 19 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Enrike Salinas, kichik, aka Playboy Yoshi: 26 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Raul Moreno, aka Flako Yoshi: 23 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Migel Soriya, aka Mikey Yoshi: 19 Davlat vasiyligi
Perla Karolina Ximenes, aka P. Yoshi: 28 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Luz Mariya Benavidez Martinez, aka Araceli Yoshi: 31 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Bridjit Reynoso, aka B. Yoshi: 23 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Xorxe Xumberto Lora, aka Georgie Yoshi: 31 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Kristofer Adrian Ruis, yashirincha Yoshi: 36 Federal vasiylik
Richard Gilbert Favela, kichkina Yoshi: 26 Imperial Beach, Kaliforniya
Humberto Torres Mendoza, aka Tito Yoshi: 25 Kolton, Kaliforniya
Xuan Karlos Riku Agirre, aka -uka Yoshi: 26 Meksika
Telle Kreschmer Yoshi: 21 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Gektor Montes, aka Toksik, aka Kichik Spikey Yoshi: 23 Davlat vasiyligi
Xose Kontreras, aka Pepe Yoshi: 28 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Hassain Alzubaidy, aka arab Yoshi: 25 Moreno vodiysi, Kaliforniya
Ivan Mora Yoshi: 21 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Ulises Valenzuela Yoshi: 31 Chula Vista, Kaliforniya
Benjamin Avendano, aka Peso Yoshi: 19 Federal vasiylik
Jennifer Eskamilla Yoshi: 26 Tixuana, Meksika
Araceli Varela, uvia Yoshi: 33 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Rocio Lopez Yoshi: 37 San -Diego, Kaliforniya
Kevin Luis, aka Listo Yoshi: 28 San -Diego, Kaliforniya

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari prokurori Daffi uyushgan jinoyatchilikka qarshi kurashish bo'yicha ishchi guruhini (OCDETF) ushbu tergov yakunida jamoaning muvofiqlashtirilgan sa'y -harakatlarini yuqori baholadi. Federal tergov byurosi, San -Diyego politsiya bo'limi, Giyohvand moddalarga qarshi kurash boshqarmasi, San -Diyego okrugi sherifi va Chula Vista politsiya bo'limi, AQSh marshallari xizmati, Spirtli ichimliklar, tamaki, o'qotar va portlovchi moddalar byurosi, Kaliforniya adliya boshqarmasi agentlari va ofitserlari. va San -Diyego okrug okrugi prokuraturasi ushbu OCDETF tergovida ishtirok etdi. OCDETF dasturi bu mamlakatda uyushgan jinoyatchilik va giyohvand moddalar savdosining asosiy tashkilotlariga qarshi kurashda barcha huquqni muhofaza qilish manbalarini birlashtirish va ulardan foydalanish uchun yaratilgan.

Bu ish San -Diego federal sudida AQSh advokatlari yordamchilari Todd Robinson va Jeyms P. Melendres tomonidan ko'rib chiqilmoqda.

Shikoyat sudlanuvchilar ayblanayotgan jinoyatlarni sodir etganiga dalil emas. Ayblanuvchilar aybsiz deb topiladi, chunki hukumat o'z aybini isbotlashda ayblanmagan.


Zargarlik buyumlari ishlab chiqaruvchilarining belgilari: qisqacha tarix

Zargarlik buyumlari qadimiy deb hisoblanishi uchun 100 yoshdan katta bo'lishi kerak, vintage zargarlik buyumlari esa 20 yoshdan oshgan bo'lishi kerak. "Retro" zargarlik buyumlari 1940 va 50 -yillarda ishlab chiqarilgan buyumlarni anglatadi va katta va rang -barang qimmatbaho toshlardan foydalanish bilan ajralib turadi.

Qo'shma Shtatlarda 1906 yildagi "Oltin va kumush shtamplash to'g'risida" milliy qonun zargarlardan ma'lum bir buyumda ishlatilgan materiallarni ko'rsatuvchi aniq poklik belgisini qo'yishni talab qilgan. 1961 yilda Amerika hukumati zargarlik buyumlari ishlab chiqaruvchisiga zargarlik buyumlari ishlab chiqaruvchisini ko'rsatuvchi belgini qo'yishni buyurdi.

Buyuk Britaniyada tamg'a belgisi uzoq tarixga ega bo'lib, 14 -asrga to'g'ri keladi. Bugungi standartlar 1973 yildagi Hallmarking qonuni bilan tartibga solinadi. 1999 yilgacha ishlab chiqarilgan britaniyalik zargarlik buyumlarining har biri, tahlil idorasida ro'yxatdan o'tgan yilga to'g'ri keladigan, pochta markasi deb nomlanishi kerak edi. Tahlil idoralari - zargarlik metallarining tozaligini tekshirish yoki sinovdan o'tkazish va ba'zi hollarda zargarlik buyumlarini ajratib ko'rsatish vazifasi qo'yilgan rasmiy davlat muassasalari.

Frantsiyadagi zargarlik buyumlari bundan ancha oldinroq bo'lib, 13 -asrda ma'lum bo'lgan misollar bilan. Siz frantsuz antiqa zargarlik buyumlarini yig'ayotganingizni bilish uchun muhim yil-bu 1797 yil, u tez-tez qalqon maydoniga joylashtiriladigan olmos shaklidagi zaryadlangan, ishlab chiqaruvchining markasi bo'lishi kerak edi.


Kabel qatlami

A kabel qatlami yoki kabel kemasi -bu dengiz osti kemasi, telekommunikatsiya, elektr va elektr uzatish, harbiy yoki boshqa maqsadlar uchun suv osti kabellarini yotqizish uchun mo'ljallangan. Kabelli kemalar kabelni kamon yoki tokka yoki ikkalasiga yo'naltirish uchun katta simi tokchalari [1] bilan ajralib turadi. O'tmishda barcha kabel kemalariga xos bo'lgan kamon tokchalari [2] o'tmishdagi barcha kabel kemalariga xos bo'lgan, lekin yangi kemalar faqat CS -ning fotosuratida ko'rinib turganidek, faqat qattiq burmalarga ega. Kabel novatori Ushbu sahifada Astoriya portida. Kabel kemalarining nomlari ko'pincha "C.S." dan oldin keladi. CS -da bo'lgani kabi Uzoq chiziqlar. [3]

Birinchi transatlantik kabellar 1857–58 yillarda kabel qatlamlari orqali yotqizilgan. U qisqa vaqt ichida Evropa va Shimoliy Amerika o'rtasida telekommunikatsiyani yoqib yubordi, chunki bu noto'g'ri ishlatilgandan keyin tarmoq uzilib qoldi. 1866 yilda SS Ajoyib va#8197 Sharqiy qit'alar o'rtasidagi kelajakdagi aloqani ta'minlaydigan ikkita transatlantik kabelni muvaffaqiyatli o'tkazdi.


Sizning forumingiz foydalanuvchining ismi nimani anglatadi?

Men boshqa mavzuda aytdimki, bizda shunday nomli mavzu bo'lishi kerak. Men allaqachon PMdan boshlashni so'ragan edim. Shunday qilib, men birinchi bor ketaman.

MrFSS janob uchun qisqa Moliyaviy hisob -kitob xizmatlari. Bu men bir necha yil oldin nafaqaga chiqqan katta kompaniyaning sho'ba kompaniyasi. Bizning kichik guruhimizda bizda faqat bir nechta xodim bor edi va mening ko'plab mijozlarim uchun meni "MrFSS" deb bilishardi. Bu yopishib qoldi va men uni bugun ham ishlataman. Men u erda bir necha yil ishlamadim, lekin men hali ham odamlardan eshitaman.

Agar sizda nima uchun foydalanuvchi nomi borligi va u bilan bo'lishishni xohlayotganingiz haqida hikoya bo'lsa, bu joy!

Xizmat ko'rsatuvchi

Men boshqa mavzuda aytdimki, bizda shunday nomli mavzu bo'lishi kerak. Men allaqachon PMdan boshlashimni so'ragan edim. Shunday qilib, men birinchi bor ketaman.

MrFSS janob uchun qisqa Moliyaviy hisob -kitob xizmatlari. Bu men bir necha yil oldin nafaqaga chiqqan katta kompaniyaning sho'ba kompaniyasi. Bizning kichik guruhimizda bizda faqat bir nechta xodim bor edi va mening ko'plab mijozlarim uchun meni "MrFSS" deb bilishardi. Bu yopishib qoldi va men uni bugun ham ishlataman. U erda bir necha yil ishlamadim, lekin men hali ham odamlardan eshitaman.

Agar sizda nima uchun foydalanuvchi nomi borligi va u bilan bo'lishishni xohlayotganingiz haqida hikoya bo'lsa, bu joy!

RailFanLNK

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Railrookie. hammasini aytadi. Men temir yo'lda yangi bo'ldim, lekin ko'p narsalarni o'rgandim. Men 1/2 1/2 yil oldin qo'ygan ba'zi postlarga qaytdim. jim qanday xijolat! : ha: Men forumdan 1 1/2 yil ichida juda ko'p narsalarni o'rgandim, poezdlar va birinchi navbatda Amtrak (bu forumdan o'rganilgan) haqida kitob o'qish LNKda. Qiziqarli daqiqalardan biri - forum a'zosi bilan oldinga va orqaga suhbatlashish va men 1980 -yillarda men kuzatgan punk guruhining gitarachisi ekanligini bilish. Men vafot etganimda, siz eshitmagan edingiz. & quot; bu o'z -o'zidan zo'r edi!

MrFSS

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GG -1 - bu mening sevimli, eng yaxshi dvigatelim, NECda 1937-1983 yillarda Dunyoning standart temir yo'li, Pensilvaniya temir yo'li.

Saqlash2001

Xizmat ko'rsatuvchi

Mening ismim maktabdan beri esimda qoldi:

Squeakz = Kulganimda chinqiraman. Odamlar meni anchadan buyon "qichqiriq" deb atashardi!

2001 = men maktabni bitirgan yil.

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Rafi: bu mening ismim. Siz ham meni "quotrafster" va "flyertalk" taxtasida ko'rasiz: eski maktab taxallusi.

Kundalik uchrashuvlar

Dirijyor

Everydaymatters-ism bir necha yil oldin men Bethesda Milliy Sog'liqni Saqlash Institutida tadqiqotchi bo'lganimda boshlangan. Men kichkina kal boshli bolalarni IV naychalarini aylanib yurayotganini ko'rdim. Men o'sha erda bo'lgan kattalar bilan gaplashdim, chunki ular kamdan -kam uchraydigan saraton kasalligiga chalingan va shifokorlar hayron bo'lishgan. Men o'pka kasalligi o'lik ekanligini biladigan odamlar bilan uchrashdim, lekin qandaydir yangi tadqiqot loyihasi yashashni osonlashtiradigan yangi dori ishlab chiqarilishiga umid qilgandim.

Har bir kun hal qiluvchi ahamiyatga ega edi. Har kun muhim edi. Shunday qilib, Everydaymatters nomi.

Aytgancha - Men olib borgan tadqiqot loyihasi natijasida men o'pka fibrozining umumiy oqsilini topdim. Bu ko'proq tadqiqotlar uchun eshiklarni ochadi, ehtimol, hatto davo ham men boshdan kechirgan har bir og'riqli sinovni har soniyasiga to'g'ri keldi. Mening tugmalarim shunday ajoyib natijalarga ega bo'lgan tadqiqot loyihasining bir qismi edi.

Bill Xaytkot

Dirijyor

MrFSS

Dirijyor

Everydaymatters-ism bir necha yil oldin men Bethesda Milliy Sog'liqni Saqlash Institutida tadqiqotchi bo'lganimda boshlangan. Men kichkina kal boshli bolalarni IV naychalarini aylanib yurayotganini ko'rdim. Men o'sha erda bo'lgan kattalar bilan gaplashdim, chunki ular kamdan -kam uchraydigan saraton kasalligiga chalingan va shifokorlar hayron bo'lishgan. Men o'pka kasalligi o'lik ekanligini biladigan odamlar bilan uchrashdim, lekin qandaydir yangi tadqiqot loyihasi yashashni osonlashtiradigan yangi dori ishlab chiqarilishiga umid qilgandim.
Har bir kun hal qiluvchi ahamiyatga ega edi. Har kun muhim edi. Shunday qilib, Everydaymatters nomi.

Aytgancha - Men olib borgan tadqiqot loyihasi natijasida men o'pka fibrozining umumiy oqsilini topdim. Bu ko'proq tadqiqotlar uchun eshiklarni ochadi, ehtimol, hatto davo ham men boshdan kechirgan har bir og'riqli sinovni har soniyasiga to'g'ri keldi. Mening tugmalarim shunday ajoyib natijalarga ega bo'lgan tadqiqot loyihasining bir qismi edi.

Gswager

Dirijyor
OBS boshlig'i

Xorazm

Dirijyor

Men boshqa mavzuda aytdimki, bizda shunday nomli mavzu bo'lishi kerak. Men allaqachon PMdan boshlashni so'ragan edim. Shunday qilib, men birinchi bo'lib boraman.
MrFSS janob uchun qisqa Moliyaviy hisob -kitob xizmatlari. Bu men bir necha yil oldin nafaqaga chiqqan katta kompaniyaning sho'ba kompaniyasi. Bizning kichik guruhimizda bizda faqat bir nechta xodim bor edi va mening ko'plab mijozlarim uchun meni "MrFSS" deb bilishardi. Bu yopishib qoldi va men uni bugun ham ishlataman. U erda bir necha yil ishlamadim, lekin men hali ham odamlardan eshitaman.

Agar sizda nima uchun foydalanuvchi nomi borligi va u bilan bo'lishishni xohlayotganingiz haqida hikoya bo'lsa, bu joy!

Tom, men seni sobiq temir yo'lchi deb o'ylardim. Biz hafta oxiri ishdan bo'shagan tormozchilarni chaqirardik & quot; janob. Juma, shanba va yakshanba. & Quot; Biz o'z ismimizni Junoga qo'yolmadik, shuning uchun o'rtasiga 8 qo'ydik.

MrFSS

Dirijyor

Metropolitan

OBS boshlig'i

Tan olishdan nafratlanaman, lekin men har doim kimdir shunday mavzuni boshlashini umid qilganman.

Mening ismim aslida erta tanlangan. Men bir paytlar Baltimor va Xarrisburg o'rtasida o'tadigan shimoli -sharqdagi PRR magistral liniyasi (eski shimoliy markaziy) bo'lgan joydan qisqa masofada yashayman. Men bolaligimda 70 -yillarning oxirida, bu yuk liniyasi uzilib qolganida, men birinchi marotaba qiziqib qoldim va nihoyat 1992 yilda bizning engil temir yo'l liniyasi ochilganda unga minib oldim.

O'zining gullab -yashnayotgan davrida bu liniyada Vashington/Baltimordan Sent -Luis, Chikago va Buffaloga poezdlar bor edi. Tarix Buff, men forumga kirganimda, men o'zimni qiziqtirgan bu yo'nalishda harakatlangan yo'lovchi poezdining qaymoqchasiga mos keladigan ismimni tanlashni xohlardim. Eski jadvalni ko'zdan kechirib, men topdim deb o'yladim va "Metropoliten" ni tanladim, chunki bu nom 40 -yillardagi eng yaxshi poyezdga o'xshaydi.

Keyinroq bilsam, Vashington poytaxti va "Metropoliten" poezdi Nyu -Yorkgacha harakatlanadigan "haqiqiy Metropolitan" ga bog'lovchi poezddan boshqa narsa emas edi.

Agar men uy vazifasini to'g'ri bajargan bo'lsam, men "LIBERTY LIMITED" ni tanlagan bo'lardim, chunki bu zamonaviy poezd edi, men Baltimor Penn Stantsiyasida minib, sevimli shimoliy markazimdan Harrisburgga borib, G'arbdan poezdlarni almashtirmasdan Chikago tomon davom eta olardim.

Men yorliqni o'zgartirishga harakat qildim, lekin qanday qilib tushuna olmadim. Xo'sh, "Metropoliten" hali ham yaxshi.

Shunday qilib, mening ismimning butun hikoyasi bor, ehtimol hamma bilishdan ko'ra ko'proq narsani biladi!

Shuni ham tan olamanki, nima uchun & quot8 & quot o'rtasida & quothad8ley o'rtada ekanligi menga doim qiziq bo'lgan. & Quot; Men hech qachon bunday oddiy bo'lishining sababini o'ylamagan edim! QOTIB KULDIM!

AlanB

Dirijyor

Joy 1181

Bosh xizmat xodimi

Spot = 18 yoshimdan beri sochlarimdagi oq nuqta (Spot xonim buni skunkstreak deb ataydi, shuning uchun uni Skunk xonim qiladi?

1181 = men Cincinnati shahrida olib boradigan pochta yo'nalishi. joy 1181.

99

Poyezd xizmatchisi

325

Xizmat ko'rsatuvchi

Men o'z ona shahrim, Florida shtatidagi Leyk Uelsdagi Leyk Uels model temir yo'l klubi bilan shug'ullana boshlaganimda, Trainboy hazil sifatida boshlandi. Uels -Leyk shahri elektron pochta tizimini yaratayotganda, temir yo'l klubi tashrif buyuruvchilar va potentsial a'zolarga javob berish uchun hisob qaydnomasini oladi. Men o'sha paytda klub vitse -prezidenti bo'lganman, shuningdek, shaharning yarim vaqtda xodimi bo'lganman, bu menga elektron pochta hisobini kuzatish uchun intranet tizimiga kirishga ruxsat bergan. Klub a'zolari va mening otam & quot; Trener & quot; bo'lishni taklif qilishdi, chunki klub asosan nafaqaxo'rlardan iborat edi va men guruhdagi yagona o'smir edim. Shunday qilib, bu temir yo'l klubining hukumat hisobi ma'muri uchun mening shaxsiyligim bo'lib qoldi va men o'rta maktabda AOL hisob qaydnomamni olganimda uni foydalanuvchi ismim sifatida ishlatgan. O'shandan beri bu mening elektron pochta nomim bo'lib qoldi. 325 Depo muzeyining manzilini ko'rsatadi: 325 S. Scenic Highway, Uels ko'li, FL 33853.

Men bu ajoyib joyni qurishda ishtirok etganimdan faxrlanaman. Muzey Uels ko'lidagi 1928 yilda qurilgan sobiq Atlantika qirg'oqlari stantsiyasida joylashgan bo'lib, ACLning Maykiga ichki yo'nalish uchun FEC bilan raqobatlashish rejasi doirasida Everglades shahri/Klivistongacha cho'zilgan Xayns -Siti magistralidan uzilgan. Muzey Uels ko'li tarixiga bag'ishlangan, ammo temir yo'l majmuasining eng mashhur va ko'zga ko'ringan mavzusi. Muzeyda uchta harakatlanuvchi buyumlar namoyish etilmoqda: Wildwood, FL shtatidan qutulib qolgan kabus, ish paytida Gruziya markaziga tegishli bo'lgan Pullman biznes avtomobili va ilgari Armiya muhandislar korpusiga tegishli bo'lgan Whitcomb hovli almashtirgichi. Italiyada urushdan keyingi rekonstruksiya uchun ishlatilgan va keyinchalik Mulberry, FLda fosfat qazib chiqaruvchi kompaniya tomonidan ishlatilgan. Temir yo'l klubining sobiq Seaboard yuk stantsiyasida joylashgan uyi bor, u ACL stantsiyasi binosi yonidagi shaharning asl joyidan ko'chirilgan. U markaziy Florida bilan sharqiy dengiz qirg'og'ini tasvirlaydigan katta hajmli HO sxemasiga ega, eng katta bo'limda asosiy mavzu. Bundan tashqari, N, G va O o'lchovli sxemalar ko'rsatiladi.

Oxirgi qism mavzudan biroz chetda qolgan, lekin shuni aytib o'tish joizki, men bugun temir yo'l xodimi, sobiq temir yo'l xodimi va Milliy bog'lar xizmati xodimi sifatida tarixiy himoyachi sifatida ishlayman.


Norvegiyalik etnolog Tor Xeyerdal papirusli qayiqda suzib yuradi

1970 yil 17 mayda norvegiyalik etnolog Tor Xeyerdal va ko'p millatli ekipaj Marokashdan Atlantika okeani bo'ylab yo'l olishdi. Ra II, qadimgi Misr yelkanli kemalari namunasidagi papirus yelkanli kema. Heyerdal O'rta er dengizi tsivilizatsiyalari qadim zamonlarda Amerikaga suzib borgan va Markaziy va Janubiy Amerika xalqlari bilan madaniyat almashgan degan o'z nazariyasini isbotlashga urinayotgan edi. The Ra II 57 kun ichida 4000 mil okeandan Barbadosgacha o'tdi.

Heyerdal, 1914 yilda Norvegiyaning Larvik shahrida tug'ilgan, dastlab Oslo universitetida zoologiya va geografiyani o'rgangan. 1936 yilda u xotini bilan Markes orollariga sayohat qilib, Tinch okeanining uzoq arxipelagining flora va faunasini o'rgangan. U Polineziyada aholi soni qanday bo'lganligi haqidagi savolga qiziqib qoldi. O'sha paytda (va hozirda) Janubi -Sharqiy Osiyoning qadimgi dengizchilari Polineziyani egallagan degan fikr ustun edi. Biroq, Tinch okeanidagi shamollar va oqimlar odatda sharqdan g'arbga qarab harakat qilgani uchun va Janubiy Amerika o'simliklari, masalan, shirin kartoshka Polineziyada topilganligi sababli, Heyerdal ba'zi polineziyaliklar Janubiy Amerikada paydo bo'lgan deb taxmin qilgan.

Bu nazariyani o'rganish uchun u Ekvadordan kelgan balsa jurnallaridan Janubiy Amerika tarixidan oldingi salning nusxasini qurdi. Masihiy Kon-Tiki, Inka xudosidan keyin Xeyerdal va kichik ekipaj 1947 yil aprelda Peru shahrining Kallao shahridan jo'nab ketishdi va taxminan 5000 mil okeanni bosib o'tib, 101 kundan keyin Polineziyaga etib kelishdi. Kitobda Heyerdal epik sayohat haqidagi hikoyani aytib berdi Kon-Tiki (1950) va shu nomdagi hujjatli filmda, 1952 yil "Eng yaxshi hujjatli film" uchun "Oskar" mukofotiga sazovor bo'lgan.

Keyinchalik Xeyerdal Afrika va Markaziy va Janubiy Amerikaning ilk xalqlari o'rtasida madaniy aloqa imkoniyati bilan qiziqdi. Ba'zi madaniy o'xshashliklar, masalan, qadimgi Misr va Meksika tsivilizatsiyasida piramida qurilishining umumiy ahamiyati, ehtimol, bog'lanishni taklif qilgan. Qadimgi transatlantik sayohatlarning maqsadga muvofiqligini tekshirish uchun Xeyerdal 1969 yilda Markaziy Afrikadagi Chad ko'lidan an'anaviy qayiq ishlab chiqaruvchilar yordamida qadimiy Misr papirus kemasining 45 metr uzunlikdagi nusxasini qurdi. Piramidalar etagida qurilgan va quyosh xudosi Ra nomi bilan atalgan, keyinchalik Marokashning Safi shahriga ko'chirilgan, u erdan 1969 yil 24 mayda Karib dengiziga yo'l olgan. Dizayndagi nuqsonlar va boshqa muammolar uni iyul oyida asoschisiga olib kelgan. , Maqsadiga 600 mil yetmaydi. U 3000 mil masofani suzib ketdi.

Xayerdal qo'rqmasdan ikkinchi papirusni yasadi Ra II, Boliviyadagi Titikaka ko'li hindu qayiqchilarining Aymaro yordami bilan. Etti kishilik ko'p millatli ekipaj bilan Ra II 1970 yil 17 mayda Safidan suzib ketdi. 57 kunlik va 4000 millik sayohatdan so'ng, kema Barbadosga etib keldi. Kitobda bu sayohat haqidagi hikoya yozilgan Ra ekspeditsiyalari (1971) va hujjatli filmda.

1977 yilda Xeyerdal rahbarlik qildi Dajla ekspeditsiya, u qamishlardan yasalgan kemani Iroqdagi Dajla daryosidan Fors ko'rfazigacha, Arab dengizi orqali Pokistonga va nihoyat Qizil dengizga borgan. Ekspeditsiyaning maqsadi dengiz bo'ylab Mesopotamiya, Hind vodiysi va Misrning buyuk madaniyatlari o'rtasida aloqa borligini aniqlash edi. Keyinchalik Heyerdal Pasxa oroliga va Peru shimolidagi Tucume arxeologik saytiga tadqiqot ekspeditsiyalarini boshqargan. Aksariyat hollarda Heyerdalning fikrlari asosiy antropologlar tomonidan qabul qilinmagan.


Tashqi havolalar



Ma'lumot: 11.07.2020 05:44:17 CEST

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Sizning forumingiz foydalanuvchining ismi nimani anglatadi?

Men boshqa mavzuda aytdimki, bizda shunday nomli mavzu bo'lishi kerak. Men allaqachon PMdan boshlashimni so'ragan edim. Shunday qilib, men birinchi bor ketaman.

MrFSS janob uchun qisqa Moliyaviy hisob -kitoblar xizmati. Bu men bir necha yil oldin nafaqaga chiqqan katta kompaniyaning sho'ba kompaniyasi. Bizning kichik guruhimizda bizda faqat bir nechta xodim bor edi va mening ko'plab mijozlarim uchun meni "MrFSS" deb bilishardi. Bu yopishib qoldi va men uni bugun ham ishlataman. U erda bir necha yil ishlamadim, lekin men hali ham odamlardan eshitaman.

Agar sizda nima uchun foydalanuvchi nomi borligi va u bilan bo'lishishni xohlayotganingiz haqida hikoya bo'lsa, bu joy!

Xizmat ko'rsatuvchi

Men boshqa mavzuda aytdimki, bizda shunday nomli mavzu bo'lishi kerak. Men allaqachon PMdan boshlashni so'ragan edim. Shunday qilib, men birinchi bor ketaman.

MrFSS janob uchun qisqa Moliyaviy hisob -kitob xizmatlari. Bu men bir necha yil oldin nafaqaga chiqqan katta kompaniyaning sho'ba kompaniyasi. Bizning kichik guruhimizda bizda faqat bir nechta xodim bor edi va mening ko'plab mijozlarim uchun meni "MrFSS" deb bilishardi. Bu yopishib qoldi va men uni bugun ham ishlataman. U erda bir necha yil ishlamadim, lekin men hali ham odamlardan eshitaman.

Agar sizda nima uchun foydalanuvchi nomi borligi va u bilan bo'lishishni xohlayotganingiz haqida hikoya bo'lsa, bu joy!

RailFanLNK

Dirijyor

Railrookie. hammasini aytadi. Men temir yo'lda yangi bo'ldim, lekin ko'p narsalarni o'rgandim. Men 1/2 1/2 yil oldin qo'ygan ba'zi postlarga qaytdim. jim qanday xijolat! :huh: I have learned so much in 1 1/2 years from the forum, reading books on trains and primarily Amtrak (all learned from this forum) hanging out and talking to Amtrak employees of the CZ in LNK and talking to the ticket agent in LNK. One of the cooler moments is talking back and forth with a forum member and finding out he was the guitarist in a punk band I followed in the 1980's. I about died when he said, "have you ever heard of. " that was cool in itself!

MrFSS

Conductor
Conductor

GG-1 is my favorite, the best motor, used on the NEC from 1937 - 1983 by the Standard Railroad of the World, the Pennsylvania Rail Road.

Squeakz2001

Service Attendant

My name has stuck with me since high school:

Squeakz= I squeak when I laugh. People have called me 'squeaky' for a long time!

2001= the year I graduated high school.

Conductor

Rafi: it's my name. You'll also see me as "rafster" on the flyertalk board: old high school nickname.

Everydaymatters

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.

Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Bill Haithcoat

Conductor

MrFSS

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.
Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Gswager

Conductor
OBS Chief

Had8ley

Conductor

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.
MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

Well Tom I would have thought you were a former railroader. We used to call the brakemen that laid off on week-ends "Mr. Friday, Saturday and Sunday." We couldn't get our name on Juno so we just put an 8 in the middle.

MrFSS

Conductor

The Metropolitan

OBS Chief

Hate to admit it, but I always HOPED someone would initiate a topic like this.

My name was actually chosen prematurely. I live a short distance from what was once the "other" PRR Main Line (the old Northern Central) in the Northeast, running between Baltimore and Harrisburg. I first became intrigued by this line as a child in the late 70's, when it was just a disconnected freight line, and finally rode it in 1992 when our Light Rail line opened along it.

In its heyday, the line hosted trains from Washington/Baltimore to St. Louis, Chicago, and Buffalo. History Buff that I am, when I joined the forum, I wanted to choose my name to match the cream of the crop passenger train that plyed this line I was so fascinated by. Looking through an old timetable, I thought I had found it, and promptly chose "The Metropolitan" as the name had that stylish 40's feel of a premier train.

Later I would learn that the Washington train "Metropolitan" was little more than a connecting train to the "real Metropolitan" that operated through to New York.

Had I really done my homework right, I would have chosen "LIBERTY LIMITED" as this was the stylish train that I could board at Penn Station Baltimore, head up my beloved Northern Central into Harrisburg, and continue West towards Chicago without ever changing trains.

I did look to try to change the label, but couldn't figure out how. Ah, well, "The Metropolitan" is still cool.

So there is the whole story of my name, probably far more than anyone cared to know!

I'll also admit I was always curious why the "8" was in the middle of "had8ley." I'd have never thought the reason to be so simple! LOL!

AlanB

Conductor

Spot1181

Lead Service Attendant

Spot=the white spot I've had in my hair since I was 18 ( Mrs. Spot calls it a skunkstreak now, which makes her Mrs. Skunk?

1181= the mail route I carry in Cincinnati. spot1181.

Tourlink99

Train Attendant

Trainboy325

Service Attendant

Trainboy started out as a joke when I began my involvement with the Lake Wales Model Railroad Club in Lake Wales, Florida, my hometown. When the City of Lake Wales was creating its email system and the railroad club was going to get an account for responding to visitors and potential members. I was at the time the club's vice president as well as a part time employee of the City which allowed me access to the intranet system to monitor the email account. It was suggested by club members and my dad to be the "Trainboy" since the club was made up mostly of retired men and I was the only teenager in the group. So it stuck, becoming my identity for the railroad club's government account administrator and used it as my username when I got my AOL account during high school. It has remained my email name since. The 325 represents the Depot Museum's address in town: 325 S. Scenic Highway, Lake Wales, FL 33853.

I'm proud to have been part of building this wonderful place. The museum is in the former Atlantic Coast Line station in Lake Wales built in 1928 as part of ACL's plan to compete against the FEC for an inland route to Miami that spun off it's mainline in Haines City running down to Everglades City/Clewiston. The museum focuses on Lake Wales' history as a whole, but railroading is by far the most popular and visible theme of the complex. The museum has three rolling stock pieces on display: a Seaboard caboose salvaged from Wildwood, FL, a Pullman Business Car owned by the Central of Georgia during its working life and a Whitcomb yard switcher that used to owned by the Army Corps of Engineers that was used in Italy for post-war reconstruction and later used by a phosphate mining company in Mulberry, FL. The railroad club has it's home in the former Seaboard freight station that was relocated from it's original site in town next door to the ACL station building. It has a large HO scale layout depicting the eastern seaboard with Central Florida a major subject on the largest section. In addition, N, G and O scale layouts are on display.

The last part is a little off topic, but was worth mentioning since it's so much of a part of who I am today as a railfan, former railroad employee and historic preservation advocate as an employee of the National Park Service.


The FN-49 Rifle (AKA SAFN-49)

The FN-49 rifle is a classic battle rifle. It was designed by Dieudonne J. Saive in the dark days before the Second World War. Saive fled Belgium prior to its occupation by Germany with his new design. Working at the Royal Arsenal at Enfield, he continued his design work throughout the war, but the British military showed little interest in changing from their proven Lee-Enfield rifles to a new, unproven semi-automatic rifle. So it was that when the war ended D. Saive returned home to Belgium to continue his work there for Fabrique Nationale.

The Belgian military adopted the FN-49 in .30-06, and the rifle was built in seven other different calibres, for a total of 11 different nations. Total production was 176,264 rifles. The production and distribution were as follows:
-6.5mm: 5 produced for testing
-7mm Mauser: 8,003 produced for Venezuela
-.30 M2 (.30-06): 125,072 produced for Belgium, Belgian Congo, Luxembourg, Indonesia, Colombia, and Brazil.
-7.5mm: 1 produced for testing
-7.62mm: 1 produced for testing
-7.65mm: 5,541 produced for Argentina
-7.92mm (8mm Mauser): 37,641 produced for Egypt and for British tests

There were variations on the original rifle including Sniper versions with a leather cheek pad, and the scope and mount. There were (rare) 20 round magazine versions produced.

The FN-49 saw action in the Korean War with the Belgian force in the UN contingent. Its performance was reportedly favorable in comparison to that of the M1 Garand rifle in use by the US forces.

Legal Status

The FN-49 could possibly fall under either the &ldquoAssault Rifle&rdquo provisions of the Crime Bill, or the National Firearms Act (Title II of the 1968 GCA), this depends on what features the rifle has. Since the rifle does exist in a selective fire configuration, those machine guns would require registration under the NFA. I don&rsquot know if any NFA registered selective fire FN-49&rsquos exist in the US. The rifle does fall under the provisions of the Crime Bill since it has a detachable magazine, it has a threaded barrel and a bayonet lug.

In Canada, the FN-49 is considered a non-restricted rifle, but due to Canadian laws, the FN-49&rsquos 10 round magazine must be permanently blocked to five rounds or less. The new firearms control legislation in Canada requires the rifle to be registered (along with all other firearms) prior to 2003. Transfer of ownership is regulated by possession of a FAC (Firearms Control Certificate) or FPAL (Firearms possession and Acquisition License) and the transfer will cost $25. In Canada, only the Semi-auto version may be owned, unless the owner registered their select fire version in 1978.

The FN-49 is a gas operated, air cooled, magazine fed semi-automatic or fully-automatic rifle that fires from a closed bolt.

The gas system on the FN-49 is located above the barrel. There is a gas port 6.25 inches back from the muzzle that allows gas from the fired cartridge to be tapped off and directed into the gas cylinder. There is a threaded, adjustable sleeve around the gas cylinder that allows the amount of gas used by the system to be adjusted. This allows the extra gas to be vented, rather than sent through the system, allowing unneeded energy to exit the gas system that results in less wear and tear on the parts.

The breech block is a one piece tipping bolt, similar to the Tokarev SVT-38, SVT-40 and AVT-40 rifles. The breech block locks into place against a locking shoulder that is press-fitted into the receiver from one side. The breech block is cammed into and out of place by the breech block carrier. The breech block carrier has a spring guide in its upper portion, and it recoils on a double spring one inside the other. (The inner spring is actually two springs, joined in the middle by an internal spring guide rod.)

The trigger mechanism for the semi-auto version is different from that of the select fire version. The semi-auto version has only the trigger sear and the auxiliary sear. There is no provision for the installation of the safety sear, or the auto selector. There is a &ldquoCocked&rdquo indicator that projects through the base of the trigger guard, near the front to indicate that the hammer is cocked back. The projection is useful for checking the status of the rifle in the dark.

The safety catch is located on the right-hand side of the trigger group. When engaged, the safety has two engagement points. The cross pin to which the safety is attached operates like an FAL safety with the flat plane and the rounded surface. The flat plane is cut so as to allow the trigger to move, then when the safety is rotated into position, the rounded portion physically prevents the trigger from moving. Additionally, on the side of the trigger is a milled groove in which a pin on the arm of the safety travels. When the safety is engaged, this pin locks in the groove and prevents the trigger from being able to move to the rear. Additionally, the arm of the safety catch blocks fingers from entering the trigger guard.

The semi-automatic version of the rifle has what is called the &ldquoAuxiliary sear.&rdquo This sear catches the hammer when it is re-cocked by the rearward motion of the breech block carrier, and does not release the hammer until the trigger is released.

The selective fire version of the rifle has an &ldquoAuxiliary sear&rdquo that operates the same as the semi-auto version, but with the activation of the Auto selector, the Auxiliary sear no longer engages the hammer when it is pushed down to re-cock. Instead, the &ldquoSafety Sear,&rdquo which is installed in the receiver engages a small notch on the right-hand side of the hammer. The Safety sear is tripped by an extension which engages with the breech block carrier when it is fully forward. In this fashion, the Safety sear will only release the hammer to fall when the breech block is in position and the breech block carrier is in battery. When the Auto selector is set to Semi-automatic, the rifle operates in the same fashion as the Semi-auto rifle, but with the additional protection of the &ldquoSafety sear&rdquo which still engages the hammer and prevents it from falling until the breech block carrier is fully forward.

The rifle may be used to fire rifle grenades, if the rifle grenade attachment is affixed to the end of the barrel. Prior to firing grenades, the barrel end cap must be put on (remove the muzzle brake if fitted) and the grenade launcher must then be attached. The launcher is attached to the barrel cap with a hinged clamp and a wing-nut. The gas plug must be rotated 180 degrees so that the &ldquoR&rdquo is visible instead of the &ldquoA.&rdquo

The rifle has a detachable 10 shot box magazine which does not retain the bullets when it is removed from the action. This is because the feed lips are integral to the receiver. This may seem odd to some, but considering that most contemporary rifles were 5-shot fixed magazines, this is not out of line with the thinking of the day. The magazine can be loaded singly, or with clips. The clips can be inserted into the charger that is integral to the top-cover of the rifle, and pushed down into the magazine. The FN-49 has a last-shot hold open device which locks open on an empty magazine. There is also a bolt hold open device so that the magazine can be topped off.

The receiver has a sliding dust cover that protects the opening into the receiver from the elements.

The sights are calibrated out to 1000 meters. The front sight is a blade protected by a set of ears. It is drift adjustable, similar to the Lee-Enfield front sight. The rear sight is a peep tangent sight which is adjustable for elevation and screw-adjustable for windage. This allows the rifle to be roughly sighted with the front sight, and the fine adjustments to windage are done from the rear sight.

There were several types of bayonets available for the FN-49, including 9&rdquo double edged daggers, and 15 inch single edged Mauser style bayonets. The 15&rdquo bayonets were used mostly by Venezuela, but both types of bayonet are considered to be correct for the rifle.

Field Stripping

Before Field stripping this (or any other rifle) MAKE SURE THAT THE RIFLE IS UNLOADED. Apply the safety catch, point the rifle in a safe direction and pull back on the charging handle to check that there are no bullets in the rifle. If there are no bullets in the rifle, the breech block carrier will lock to the rear on the empty magazine. If there are bullets in the rifle, continue to cycle the action until the magazine and chamber are empty, and the breech block carrier locks open on the empty magazine.

Close the breech by depressing the follower of the mag, pulling the breech block carrier slightly to the rear and slowly lower it.

At the upper rear of the receiver is a little tab. Swing it through 180 degrees so that it blocks the view through the rear sight. Doing this will also expose the cleaning rod hole that allows access to the bore.

Push the top cover forward about 1 cm (3/8&rdquo) and lift it up. It can now be brought to the rear. This will remove the top cover and the operating springs.

Next, grasp the cocking handle and pull the breech block carrier 8 centimeters to the rear. It can then be lifted out, bringing the breech block with it.

Flip the breech block carrier upside down and lift the breech block out. Lift from the front, and slide it to the rear to allow the lugs to slide out of their ways through the rear of the breech block carrier.

Taking the breech block apart requires a screwdriver, awl, bullet, or some sort of pointed tool. 2 cm (3/4&rdquo) from the front of the bolt, on the right-hand side is a groove. Insert the pointed tool into this groove and lift the extractor spring off the extractor. Rotate the spring down through 90 degrees.

Remove the extractor and set it aside.

Press in on the rear of the firing pin and lift the extractor spring out. This will free the firing pin and spring to come out the rear of the breech block. The firing pin safety stop (the little free-floating piece of metal in the top of the breech block) may be removed if necessary.

The magazine catch will release the magazine for cleaning.

To remove the gas piston, depress the catch on the gas cylinder plug and rotate it so that the catch faces toward the barrel. Pull it out, then slide the gas piston and spring out.

To reassemble the rifle, reverse this process. Ensure that when the gas cylinder plug is replaced that the &ldquoA&rdquo is facing up.

Example rifle

The rifle examined was a Belgian rifle in .30-06, produced by FN Herstal in Belgium. Serial number was 86711 with all parts matching. The rifle was in good condition, but the bore was slightly dark. The finish was nice grey Parkerizing, except for the breech block which appears to have been lightly blued.

There was a small amount of pitting and surface rust in a few spots (side of the magazine, dust cover, rear sight, and barrel nut were notable) but overall the finish of the rifle was good.

The wood is a dark walnut, and has its share of dings and scrapes, but no cracks were evident. There is a cast metal buttplate with a butt-trap and door, but the cleaning kit was missing. There was no sling included, no bayonet, and the combination tool was absent as well.

There was a scope rail milled into the left side of the receiver, but no scope was included, and from the lack of wear it would appear that no scope has ever been installed.

Upon disassembly of the rifle, the lack of wear, and the lack of carbon build up in the gas system indicates that the rifle has definitely fired less than 500 rounds, probably less than 250. The action has been hand cycled, but the breech block carrier shows little wear where the gas piston impacts.

The rifle examined is a select fire version of the FN-49, but the selector switch has been removed, so the automatic function could not be tested or evaluated.

To conform with Canadian legal requirements, the 10 shot magazine had been plugged internally to accept only five rounds.

The rifle was test-fired at the Nova Scotia Rifle Association&rsquos Bull Meadow rifle range. The outdoor 100 meter range was selected. From the accompanying photos, it&rsquos evident that winter has struck the range. The temperature was about -10 degrees (Celsius) on the afternoon that the firing was done. The rifle was given a pre-firing cleaning prior to departure for the range. The bore was cleaned and the action lubricated with Break-Free CLP.

The first group fired was 15 cm (6&rdquo) low and 10 cm (4&rdquo) left of the bull, but the group size was only 5.8 (2.25&rdquo) cm for the best four shots. The 5th shot opened the group to 13.6 cm (5.35&rdquo.) Corrections were made, but this was the best group of the day. The next two best groups were 11.4 cm (4.49&rdquo) and 11.6 cm (4.56&rdquo.) In each case, the 5th shot opened the group to more than 20 cm (8&rdquo.)

A total of 40 rounds of Winchester Super-X hunting ammunition (the only 30-06 available) was fired in this session. No jams or failures were noted throughout the session. The session was ended at dusk. Ejected cases were tossed about 2 meters forward and right of the shooter.

The author found the recoil to be more of a heavy push than a slamming impulse. The other shooter found the rifle to have considerably more recoil than the AR-15 that was also along that day, but did not find it excessive.

The accuracy attained during the shooting session may have been affected by the cold (rather, the author&rsquos shivering might have affected the accuracy.) The first group, fired with warm hands and unfogged glasses is probably more reflective of the accuracy that the rifle is able to attain than the later groups.

Xulosa

The FN-49 was a very well built rifle for its time. Too well built in fact, since most of its parts are milled, rather than stamped. This means that the manufacturing costs for this rifle were very high. For this reason, it was unable to compete with more modern battle rifles.

This is not the end of the FN story, however, for Saive went on to help design and build the FN-FAL, one of the most prolific battle rifles in the world. The lineage of the FAL can be traced back directly to the FN-49, from the adjustable gas system, to the tipping bolt and headspacing method. Monsieur Saive&rsquos Model 49 rifle was not the end, rather it was a beginning.

I&rsquom a Naval Electronics Technician (Acoustic) in the Canadian Navy (yes, we do have a Navy.) I&rsquove spent the last six years with the Navy Rifle team, and have shot at the Canadian Nationals several times, and have had the privilege or representing Canada and the Navy at Bisley in 1996 and 1997 with the Canadian Forces team. If you have any questions or comments for me, please feel free to contact me via e-mail, my address is: [email protected] If I don&rsquot know the answer, I&rsquoll try to find it.

Small Arms Of the World.
E.C. Ezell.
Stackpole Books, 1983.
PP 263, 264

Rec.guns FAQ: III.D.2.b.615.
Fabrique Nationale FN-49
John Landry. 1998 yil
http://www.recguns.com/IIID2b616.html

Nova Scotia Rifle Association
(902)-456-7468

This article first appeared in Small Arms Review V2N8 (May 1999)
and was posted online on May 27, 2016


Character traits

Frigga was a strong woman, a majestic queen, and perfectly able to stand at Odin's side. Despite her attention to protocol, she was a loving and tender mother to both her sons. When Odin brought the infant Loki to Asgard after the war with the Jotuns, Frigga accepted him as her own without any hesitation, although she believed that Odin should have told him the truth about his origins all along. While she clearly attempts to believe in only the good in her sons, she was also intuitive and perceptive about other intentions. She was also generally accepted as a good judge of character.


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