Avgust haykali

Avgust haykali


Bosh va unga biriktirilgan kattaroq haykal bronzadan yasalgan bo'lib, "Yo'qotilgan mum quyma" dizayni yordamida (10 Mattusch). Bu mumdan qilingan original model yordamida amalga oshirildi. Ushbu shaklda uni quyishdan oldin osongina sozlash mumkin edi. Keyin model bo'laklarga bo'linib, loy qatlami bilan qoplangan. Keyin bo'laklarni mumni eritib, ichi bo'sh loydan yasalgan mog'or qoldirish uchun olovli chuqurga qo'yishdi. Keyin eritilgan bronza ichi bo'sh qoliplarga quyiladi va sovushiga ruxsat beriladi. Oxirgi qadam - lehim bilan qilingan qismlarni birlashtirish, keyin ularni tekislash yoki san'at asari ortiga yashirish. Bu jarayon yunonlar tomonidan kichik darajada qo'llanilgan, biroq Rim hunarmandlari tomonidan keng qo'llanilgan. Haykalning kattaligidan kattaroq bo'lgani uchun, ehtimol, u tashqarida joylashtirilgan va hech qanday qimmatbaho bezak yoki metallar bilan o'ralmagan bo'lardi, chunki ular elementlar va o'g'irliklarga duch kelgan bo'lardi. Bronzadan yasalgan materiallar qayta ishlangan yunon bronza buyumlaridan, zabt etilgan xalqlardan (xususan, finikiyaliklar) va Ispaniyadagi yirik mis konidan olingan. Boshning o'zi 1910 yilda Meroe shahridagi ma'bad ostidan professor Jon Garstang tomonidan topilgan va hozirda Angliyaning London shahridagi Britaniya tarixi muzeyida saqlanmoqda.

Bosh va haykal rimliklar tomonidan, keyinchalik Avgustga aylangan rim generali Oktaviy tomonidan Rim imperiyasi birlashtirilgandan keyingi yillarda yaratilgan. O'shanda so'nggi voqealar haykal nima uchun yaratilganini tushuntiradi. Avgust Actium jangida Mark Entoni va Kleopatrani mag'lub etdi (Everitt, 185). Keyin u yangi Rim imperiyasida tinchlik va barqarorlikni tiklashga kirishdi. Bu haykal Misrning Asvan shahri yaqinida joylashgan va ehtimol uning g'alabasi va hukmronligi xotirasiga qurilgan. Bu haykalni yasagan hunarmandlarga, albatta, o'z ishlari uchun kompensatsiya to'langan, chunki qadimgi Rimda haykallarni yasash odatiy ish bo'lgan va bu vaqtda asosan konservativ hukumat pudratchilari nazorat qilgan (Strong, 17).


Prima -porta avgusti

Avgustus Prima -Porta - Rim imperiyasining birinchi imperatori Avgust Tsezarning portret haykali. Tajribali yunon haykaltaroshlari tomonidan o'yilgan haykal Rimda namoyish etilgan yo'qolgan bronza asli nusxasi deb taxmin qilinadi. Bu marmar haykal dastlab bo'yalgani deyarli aniq.

Avgust yalangoyoq holda tasvirlangan, bu ilohiylikni anglatuvchi konvensiya bo'lib, uning asl nusxasi milodiy 14 -yilda ilohiy maqomga ko'tarilganidan keyin yaratilganligini ko'rsatadi. Teri chakalakdagi (ko'krak nishoni zirhli) tasvir Parfiya davridagi Rim burgutlarini yoki nishonlarini qaytarishni anglatadi. Miloddan avvalgi 20 -yil, Avgustning eng muhim diplomatik yutuqlaridan biri.

Haykal Avgustning vorisi Tiberius tomonidan qurilgan. Burgutlarni tiklashda vositachi bo'lib xizmat qilgan Tiberius ko'krak nishonida ham tasvirlangan. Bu diplomatik yutuq Tiberiyning Avgust uchun eng muhim xizmati edi va bu tasvir Tiberiyni xudo qilingan imperator bilan bog'lab qo'ydi va ikkala hukmronlik o'rtasidagi uzluksizlikni ramziy qildi.

Avgust bu rolda "Imperator", "#8221" yoki Rim armiyasining bosh qo'mondoni sifatida ko'rsatilgan. U harbiy kiyimda, konsullik tayog'ini ko'tarib, qo'shinlarga murojaat qilganday, o'ng qo'lini ko'tarib tasvirlangan.

Uning zirhli ko'krak nishonidagi tasvirlar murakkab ramziy -siyosiy tashviqot dasturiga ega. Bu raqamlar turli xil Rim xudolariga, shu jumladan urush xudosi Marsga, shuningdek, u bosib olgan so'nggi hududlar: Hispaniya, Golliya, Germaniya, Parfiya va tepada Quyosh aravasi Avgustni yoritadi. ishlar.

Avgust oyog'ining yalangoyoqligi va delfin minadigan Cupidning qo'shilishi uning asrab olingan otasi Yuliy Tsezar orqali Venera ma'budasi, Cupid va onasi bilan afsonaviy aloqasini ochib beradi.

Haykal-bu miloddan avvalgi V asrda Polkleitos tomonidan yaratilgan yunon modeliga asoslangan, rim notiqining standart pozasini ko'rsatadigan idealizatsiya qilingan tasvir. Gretsiyaning kontrapposto pozitsiyasi ham nusxa ko'chirilib, tarang va bo'shashgan a'zolar o'rtasida diagonallar yaratadi, bu klassik haykaltaroshlikka xosdir. Umumiy uslub Rim portretining realizmiga qaraganda, ellinistik idealizatsiyaga yaqinroq.

Bu uslubning o'zgarishiga katta miqdordagi yunon san'atining o'g'irlanishi sabab bo'lgan. Yunon artefaktlarining bu oqimi o'zgardi va Rim didiga ta'sir qildi. Yunon san'ati Rim yuqori tabaqasi uchun boylik va maqomning ramzi sifatida qaraldi. Rasmiy haykaltaroshlik portretlarining uslubi va ramzi bo'yicha aniq yunoncha ilhom hukumatning targ'ibot vositalariga aylandi.

Prima Porta haykali ikonografiyaning yunon klassik va ellinistik davriga ongli ravishda qaytishini bildiradi, unda yoshlik va kuch etakchilik belgisi sifatida baholandi. Haykalning siyosiy vazifasi Rimga imperator Avgustning Olimpdagi ilohiy maqomga ko'tarilishga loyiq afsonaviy qahramonlar va Rimni boshqaradigan eng yaxshi odam bilan solishtirish ekanligini ko'rsatish edi.

Haykal 1863 yilda “Vilviya Liviyasida topilgan. ” Avgust Prima -porta Vatikan muzeylarining Braccio Nuovo (Yangi qo'l) da namoyish etilgan.

Liviya villasi

Liviya villasi - Rimdan 12 kilometr shimolda, Prima Portadagi qadimiy Rim villasi. Villa Avgust va uchinchi rafiqasi Liviya Drusillaga tegishli edi. Villa Rim yaqinidagi Prima Porta shahrida bo'lib, u erda Liviya milodiy 14 -yilda Avgust vafotidan keyin nafaqaga chiqqan.

Bu miloddan avvalgi 39 yilda imperator Avgustga, uning ikkinchi eri bilan turmush qurganida olib kelgan Liviya Drusilla mahrining bir qismi edi. Bu uning Rimdagi Palatin tepaligidagi uyini to'ldiruvchi ajoyib qishloq qarorgohi edi.

Sayt 1596 yil boshida qayta kashf etilgan va o'rganilgan, lekin u 19 -asrgacha "Liviya villasi" deb nomlanmagan. Bog'ning ajoyib freskalari topildi, ular keyinchalik Rimdagi Palazzo Massimo muzeyiga olib kelindi.

Avgust

Avgust (miloddan avvalgi 63 - 14) Rim imperiyasining birinchi imperatori bo'lib, miloddan avvalgi 27 -yildan eramizning 14 -yiligacha vafotigacha hukmronlik qilgan. Avgust hukmronligi Pax Romana deb nomlanuvchi nisbiy tinchlik davrini boshlab bergan. Rim dunyosi, asosan, ikki asrdan ko'proq vaqt davomida keng ko'lamli mojarolardan xoli edi, garchi imperiyaning kengayishining doimiy urushlari va "to'rtta imperatorning yili" va "8221 yil" deb nomlanuvchi fuqarolar urushiga qaramay.

Avgust Gay Oktaviyda tug'ilgan va miloddan avvalgi 44 yilda uning buyuk amakisi Yuliy Tsezar o'ldirilgan va Oktaviy Qaysarning irodasiga ko'ra, asrab olingan o'g'li va merosxo'ri deb nomlangan.

Avgust erkin respublikaning tashqi jabhasini tikladi, lekin u respublika ustidan avtokratik hokimiyatni amalga oshirdi. Avgustga rasmiy respublika davlatini uning yagona boshqaruvi ostida boshqarish mumkin bo'lgan tizimni ishlab chiqish uchun bir necha yil kerak bo'ldi. U monarxiya unvonlarini rad etib, o'zini Princeps Civitatis deb atadi (“Birinchi fuqaro ”).

Avgust imperiyani keskin kengaytirdi va chegaralardan tashqarida u imperiyani mijoz davlatlarning bufer hududi bilan ta'minladi va diplomatiya yo'li bilan Parfiya imperiyasi bilan tinchlik o'rnatdi. U Rim soliqlarini isloh qildi, yo'llar tarmog'ini rivojlantirdi, doimiy armiya tuzdi, Pretoriya gvardiyasini tuzdi, Rim uchun rasmiy politsiya va o't o'chirish xizmatlarini yaratdi va o'z hukmronligi davrida shaharning ko'p qismini qayta qurdi.

Avgust milodiy 14 yilda 75 yoshida vafot etdi. Xotini Liviya uni zaharlagani haqida tasdiqlanmagan mish -mishlar tarqaldi. Undan keyin Liviyaning o'g'li Tiberiy imperator bo'ldi.


Prima -Porta avgusti

Haykal Rimdan bir necha kilometr shimoldagi Prima -Portadagi Avgust va xotini Liviyaning villasida topilgan. U Avgustni g'ayrioddiy tarzda tasvirlaydi: general sifatida jihozlangan, yalangoyoq va bir qo'li notiqlarning portretlaridan tanish pozada.

/> Avgust Prima -Porta, ehtimol, Avgust vafotidan ko'p o'tmay qurilgan marmar haykal. Haykalda Avgust va uning siyosiy yutuqlari haqida ma'lumot berilgan.

Marmar haykal Avgust vafotidan ko'p o'tmay qilingan. Ba'zilar, bu miloddan avvalgi 20 yilda uning parfiyaliklar ustidan qozonilgan g'alabasini nishonlagan bronza haykalning nusxasi bo'lishi mumkin deb o'ylashadi. Mening sobiq O'rta er dengizi arxeologiyasi o'qituvchisi bu da'voga qo'shilmadi, chunki Avgust o'zini harbiy rahbar sifatida ko'rsatmaslikka juda ehtiyot bo'lgan - hech bo'lmaganda omma oldida. Buning bir qancha sabablari bor edi.

Birinchidan, Avgust ehtiyotkorlik bilan o'zini vazmin, hushyor va taqvodor qiyofasini taqdim etdi. Darhaqiqat, uning nomi - Avgust - aniq diniy uzukka ega va jamoat iste'mol qilish uchun mo'ljallangan ko'plab portretlar uni oddiy odam sifatida ko'rsatgan yoki ruhoniyga o'xshab kiyingan (chunki u ham boshqargan). Ikkinchidan, Avgust respublikani o'n yillik ichki nizolardan qutqardi va yangi tinchlik davrini boshlab berdi. Pax Romanava, ehtimol, u o'zining harbiy yutuqlarini ta'kidlashni xohlamagan bo'lardi.

Yana bir sabab bor: Avgust zukko siyosatchi, lekin kambag'al general edi. Yaxshiyamki, u o'zidan yaxshiroq jangchilarga ishonishi mumkin edi. Natijada, o'zini zabt etuvchi general sifatida tasvirlash mantiqqa to'g'ri kelmas edi, chunki bu uning harbiy ittifoqchilarini bo'ysundirar edi.


Italiyaning janubi-markazidagi Molise viloyatidagi Iserniya shahrida imperator Avgustning marmar boshi topilgan.

Arxeologik kashfiyot tasodifan Via Occidentale dagi qulab tushgan devorni ta'mirlash ishlari davomida aniqlandi, deb xabar beradi Italiyaning ANSA agentligi.

Tasodifiy topilma 29 aprelda Molise arxeologik boshlig'i tomonidan Facebook sahifasida fotosuratlar bilan birga e'lon qilingan.

Bu kashfiyot juda muhim ahamiyatga ega, chunki kelajakda qazish ishlari davom etar ekan, Iserniya tarixiga yangi qavat qo'shishi mumkin, deb xabar beradi ANSA.

Rasm Soprintendenza arxeologiyasi, Belle Arti va Paesaggio del Molise.


Avgust haykali - tarix

Avgustning yuzi (Rim imperatori)


Qaysar Masih Baytlahmda tug'ilishi haqidagi bashoratni qanday bajardi?

Vatikan muzeyidan olingan bu chizilgan rasm, Avgust Tsezarning yuzini ochib beradi, uning o'ng qo'li bilan imo-ishorasiga ko'ra, Rimning eng qudratli hukmdori sifatida tasvirlangan Avgust yarim tanasi tasviri. Bu Prima Portadagi Rim haykali. Uning haykali 40 yoshga kirganiga qaramay, uning yuzi imperatorning yosh ko'rinishini aks ettiradi.

Vatikan muzeyidagi Prima Porta haykalidan Qaysar Avgustning yuzi. Bu marmar haykal 1863 yilda Rimdan 9 mil narida, Liviya Drisilla villasida (Avgustusning rafiqasi) Prima -Portada topilgan. Prima Porta Rimga tashrif buyuruvchilarning darvozasi edi, bir safar sayohatchilar buni ko'rganlarida, u Rimga etib kelganini bilardi.

Avgust nafaqat birinchi imperator, balki eng buyuk ham edi. U, albatta, "o'z mamlakatining otasi" unvoniga loyiq edi. U buyuk donolik bilan Rimga ham, viloyatlarga ham hokimiyat berdi. U Rimni g'ishtdan marmar shaharga aylantirgani bilan maqtanardi. Avgust haykalining yuzi Bibliya arxeologiyasini o'rganishda muhim ahamiyatga ega, u Masih tug'ilganda Muqaddas Kitobda tilga olingan odamning qiyofasi va haqiqatini ochib beradi.

"O'sha kunlarda, Qaysar Avgustdan butun dunyo soliqqa tortilishi kerak degan farmon chiqdi. (Va bu soliq birinchi marta Kireniy Suriyaning gubernatori bo'lganida qilingan.) Va hamma soliqqa tortildi. Yusuf ham Jaliladan, Nosira shahridan Yahudiyaga, Baytlahm deb nomlangan Dovud shahriga bordi. uning xotini Maryam bilan, bolaligidan buyuk ”. Luqo 2: 1-5

Muqaddas Kitobda aytilishicha, Qaysar Avgust butun dunyoga soliq to'lash to'g'risida farmon bergan va bu yahudiylarni ham o'z ichiga oladi. Bu Iso tug'ilish arafasida sodir bo'ldi. Yusuf va Maryam ikkalasi uchun Baytlahm bo'lgan ota -bobolari shaharlariga sayohat qilishlari kerak edi. Ular Nosirada yashaganlari uchun, bu qaysi yo'lni olganiga qarab, taxminan 80-90 mil uzoqlikdagi va juda qiyin sayohat bo'lardi. Bu, asosan, Baytlahm dengiz sathidan 2500 fut balandlikda, Yahudiya tog'li mamlakatida bo'lgani uchun, tepalikka sayohat edi. Ular Baytlahmga kelganlarida, Fisih bayrami uchun Quddusga ko'p odamlar kelganligi sababli, mehmonxonada ularga joy yo'q edi va o'sha kuni Maryam Baytlahmdagi otxonada Isoni tug'di.

Miloddan avvalgi 15 yilda Avgustning asrab olingan o'g'li Tiberiy tomonidan qurilgan deb hisoblangan Prima -Porta avgusti Rim imperatori haykalining ajoyib namunasidir. Hozirda u restavratsiya bosqichida, Floridadagi bo'lim homiylari tomonidan saxiylik bilan moliyalashtirilgan.

U Rimdan to'qqiz mil narida Prima Porta shahrida Avgustus xotini Liviyaga tegishli villada topilgan. Bu miloddan avvalgi 20 -yilga tegishli bronza asli nusxasi bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, Tiberius o'zining marmar nusxasiga muhim qo'shimchalar kiritdi: ko'krak plastinkasida u Rimning Parfiylar ustidan g'alabasi tasvirlangan sahnalarni qo'shdi. Bu sahnalarni tomoshabin otasining Rim imperiyasi xavfsizligini ta'minlashdagi muhim rolini eslashi uchun Tiberius targ'ibot sifatida ishlatgan.

Avgust Prima -Porta Afinalik sportchining ideal insoniy nisbatlarini aks ettiruvchi Polykleitosning mashhur antiqa haykali Doryforga asoslangan. Avgust tasviri uni nutq so'zlagan g'olib general sifatida tasvirlaydi. U an'anaviy kontroposto uslubida joylashtirilgan: o'ng oyog'i oldinga, chap oyog'i egilib, tovoni biroz ko'tarilgan. Avgustning o'ng qo'li olijanob va boshqariladigan rim imo-ishorasi bilan cho'zilgan va bir oz egilgan chap oyog'i bilan muvozanatlashgan. Kuch va go'zallikning idealizatsiyalangan xususiyatlari bilan bir qatorda, Avgustning shaxsiy xususiyatlari ham bor: keng bosh suyagi, chuqur ko'zlari, peshonasidagi o'tkir tizmalari, yaxshi shakllangan og'zi va kichik iyagi. Bundan tashqari, uning Apollon uslubida tasvirlangan yuzi Avgustning qobiliyatini qudratli xudo bilan bog'lashi kerak edi. Shunday qilib, Avgust o'zini jamiyat va imperiyani barqarorlashtirish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lgan imperatorning qudrati va obro'sini aks ettiruvchi, o'zini mukammal etakchi sifatida ko'rsatmoqchi edi.

Mixo 5: 2 - Lekin sen, Baytlahm Efrat, sen minglab Yahudo orasida kichik bo'lsang -da, lekin sendan u Isroilda hukmronlik qilish uchun oldimdan chiqadi.

Luqo 2: 1 - O'sha kunlardan buyon farmon chiqdi Qaysar Avgust, butun dunyo soliqqa tortilishi kerak.

Doniyor 2:40 - "To'rtinchi podshohlik ham temir kabi kuchli bo'ladi, chunki temir bo'laklarga bo'linadi va hamma narsani bo'ysundiradi. Va bu temirni sindirib tashlaganidek, u ham parchalanib, ko'karib ketadi."

Havoriylar 23:11 - Ertasi kuni Rabbiy uning yonida turib, dedi: "Sabr qil, Pavlus, chunki sen Quddusda men haqimda guvohlik berganingdek, guvohlik ber. Rim.


Avgust eskizi. Eskiz Jahon tarixidan, X.F.Helmolt (tahr.),
Nyu -York, 1901 va Texas universitetidan nusxa ko'chirilgan. Bu Avgust kiygan
uning ko'krak nishoni, unda ramz uning farovonlik uchun barcha yutuqlarini ko'rsatadi
Rim imperiyasi uchun tinchlik.


6 1/2 fut baland Avgust haykali


Avgustning bronza boshi Nubiyaning Meroe shahrida topilgan (miloddan avvalgi 27-25 yillar).


Avgust portreti, miloddan avvalgi 20-30 yillar.


Imperator Avgustning marmar byusti.

Hukmronlik Miloddan avvalgi 27 yanvar 16 - milodiy 19 avgust 14 (40 yil, 215 kun)

To'liq ismi sharif
Farzand asrab olgunga qadar:
Gay Octavius ​​Turin
Qo'shilishni qabul qilish: Gay Yuliy Tsezar
Imperator sifatida: Gay Yuliy Tsezar Avgust

Tug'ilgan Miloddan avvalgi 63 sentyabr 23

Tug'ilgan joyi Rim, Rim Respublikasi

O'ldi 19 avgust milodiy 14 (75 yoshda)

O'lim joyi Nola, Italiya, Rim imperiyasi

Dafn etilgan Avgust maqbarasi, Rim

Oldingi Hech kim (imperiya tashkil topgan)

Uchun Clodia Pulchra, Scribonia, Livia Drusilla

Zurriyot Katta Yuliya, Gay Tsezar (asrab oluvchi), Lucius Tsezar (asrab oluvchi), Agrippa Postumus (asrab oluvchi), Tiberiy (asrab oluvchi)

Ota Gay Oktaviy

Ona Atia Balba Caesonia

Avgust qurgan imperiya

Avgust shakllantirgan ajoyib imperiya ulkan edi. Uning chegaralari-g'arbda Atlantika okeani sharqda Furot, Qora dengiz, Dunay va Britaniya kanali, shimolda Afrika va Arabiston cho'llari, janubda Nil kataraktlari edi. Faqat uzoq shimoldagi nemis qabilalari, sharqdagi parfiyaliklar mustaqil bo'lib qolishdi. Avgust davrida Rim imperiyasining aholisi 85 dan 120 minggacha bo'lgan. Uning professional professional armiyasi poytaxtda joylashgan qo'shinlardan tashqari 170 mingdan ortiq askarlardan iborat edi va ular ko'plab vahshiy qabilalardan chegaralarni qo'riqlagan. Avgust butun imperiyani provinsiyalar orqali boshqargan, ular Rimdan topshiriq olgan ofitserlar tomonidan boshqarilgan. Odamlar Printsipdan boshqa hech qanday boshqaruv shaklini bilmasdan o'sgan. Avgust butun imperiyaga tinchlik va farovonlik olib keldi, lekin oxir -oqibat bu yosh imperiyadan foydalanib, insoniyatga haqiqiy tinchlik keltiradigan Iso Masih, tinchlik shahzodasi edi. Rabbiy dunyoni xushxabarini tarqatish uchun qanchalik tayyorlaganini ko'rish hayratlanarli. Edvard Artur Litton yaxshi aytgan:

Tarixning dindor talabasi, hozirgi paytda dunyoning siyosiy ahvolida, xristian dinini e'lon qilish uchun ajoyib tayyorgarlikni tan olishi kerak. Imperiya tinchligi, rimliklar, qaerda bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, qurilgan ajoyib yo'llardan zavqlanib, diniy aqidaparastlikning tarqalishini bostiradigan har bir muhim joyda imperator legionlarining mavjudligini va shu bilan bolalar cherkovini tijoratning ko'payishi va tenglashtirish tendentsiyasini ta'minlab berdi. Imperator despotizmining hammasi xushxabarning muvaffaqiyatiga hissa qo'shdi. Xushxabar xabarchilari o'z vazifalarini boshlashlari uchun bundan ham qulayroq vaqt bo'lishi mumkin emas edi

Avgust Sezar Vikipediyada Gay Yuliy Tsezar Avgust (miloddan avvalgi 63 sentyabr - milodiy 14 avgust) - Rim imperiyasining birinchi imperatori, u miloddan avvalgi 27 yildan eramizning 14 yiligacha vafotigacha yolg'iz hukmronlik qilgan. [1 -eslatma] Gay Oktaviy Turin tug'ilgan eramizdan avvalgi 44-yilda buyuk amakisi Gay Yuliy Tsezar tomonidan vafotidan keyin vafotidan keyin va miloddan avvalgi 27-yilgacha rasman Gay Yuliy Tsezar deb nomlangan. Miloddan avvalgi 27 -yilda Senat unga hurmatli Avgust ("hurmatli odam") mukofotini berdi va shuning uchun u Gay Yuliy Tsezar Avgust edi. Miloddan avvalgi 63 va 44 yillar, Oktavian (yoki Octavian) miloddan avvalgi 44-27 yillar oralig'idagi voqealarga ishora qilganda va Avgust miloddan avvalgi 27 yildan keyingi voqealarga ishora qilganda. Yunon manbalarida Augustus Ὀ κ τ ά β ι ο ς (Octavius), Κ α ῖ σ α ρ (Qaysar), Α &# 8020 γ ο υ σ τ ο ς (Augustus), yoki Σ ε β α σ τ ό ς (Sebastos), kontekstga qarab. Miloddan avvalgi 44 yilda Qaysar o'ldirilganidan keyin yosh Oktaviy o'z merosiga kirdi. Eramizdan avvalgi 43 yilda Oktavian Mark Entoni va Markus Aemilius Lepidus bilan qo'shilib, Ikkinchi Triumvirat deb nomlangan harbiy diktaturaga qo'shildi. Triumvir sifatida Oktavian Rim va uning ko'plab provinsiyalarini boshqargan [3 -eslatma] Uchinchi hukmronlik hukmronlarining ambitsiyalari ostida oxir -oqibat parchalanib ketgan: Lepidus surgun qilingan va Entoni Actium jangida mag'lub bo'lganidan so'ng o'z joniga qasd qilgan. miloddan avvalgi 31 -yilda Agrippa tomonidan boshqarilgan Oktaviya floti. Ikkinchi Triumvirat vayron bo'lganidan so'ng, Oktavian Rim Respublikasining tashqi jabhasini tikladi, hukumat hokimiyati Rim Senatida edi, lekin amalda o'z avtokratik kuchini saqlab qoldi. Rasmiy respublika davlatini yagona hukmdor boshqarishi mumkin bo'lgan aniq asosni aniqlash uchun bir necha yillar kerak bo'ldi, natijada Rim imperiyasi deb nomlandi. Imperatorlik hech qachon Rim diktaturasi kabi idora bo'lmagan, Qaysar va Sulla haqiqatan ham uni boshqargan, Rim xalqi uni diktaturani egallashga taklif qilganida, u rad javobini bergan edi. Qonun bo'yicha, Avgust Senat tomonidan umrbod berilgan huquqlar to'plamiga ega edi, shu jumladan pleblar va senzura tribunalari. Miloddan avvalgi 23 yilgacha konsul bo'lgan. [2] Uning kuch -qudrati moliyaviy muvaffaqiyatlar va zabt etish jarayonida qo'lga kiritilgan resurslar, butun imperiya bo'ylab homiylik aloqalarini o'rnatish, ko'plab harbiy askarlar va faxriylarning sadoqati, Senat tomonidan berilgan ko'plab sharaflarning obro'si va [3] odamlar Avgustning Rim legionlarining ko'pchiligi ustidan nazorat qilishi Senatga qarshi qo'llanilishi mumkin bo'lgan qurolli tahdidni o'rnatdi, bu unga Senat qarorlarini majburlashga imkon berdi. Senatorlik qarshiligini qurol yordamida yo'q qilish qobiliyati bilan Senat unga nisbatan xushmuomala bo'lib qoldi. Uning homiylik, harbiy kuch va vayron bo'lgan respublika idoralarini to'plash orqali boshqarishi keyingi barcha imperiya hukumatlari uchun namuna bo'ldi. Avgust hukmronligi Pax Romana yoki Rim tinchligi deb nomlanuvchi nisbiy tinchlik davrini boshlab berdi. Chegaralarda davom etayotgan urushlarga va imperiya vorisligi uchun bir yil davom etgan fuqarolar urushiga qaramay, O'rta er dengizi dunyosi ikki asrdan ko'proq tinchlikda edi. Avgust imperiyani keskin kengaytirib, Misr, Dalmatiya, Pannoniya va Raetiyani qo'shib oldi, Afrikadagi mulkini kengaytirdi va Ispaniyani bosib olishni yakunladi. Chegaralar ortida, u imperiyani mijoz -davlatlar bilan ta'minladi va diplomatiya yo'li bilan Parfiya bilan sulh tuzdi. U Rim soliq tizimini isloh qildi, rasmiy kurerlik tizimi bilan yo'llar tarmog'ini rivojlantirdi, doimiy armiyani tuzdi, Pretoriya gvardiyasini tuzdi va Rim uchun rasmiy politsiya va o't o'chirish xizmatlarini yaratdi. Shaharning ko'p qismi Avgust davrida qayta qurilgan va u o'zining erishgan yutuqlari haqidagi yozuvni yozgan, u saqlanib qolgan Res Gestae Divi Augusti nomi bilan mashhur. Miloddan avvalgi 14 yilda vafot etgach, Avgust Senat tomonidan xudo deb e'lon qilindi - Rimliklarga sajda qilish uchun. [4] Uning ismlari Avgust va Qaysar har bir keyingi imperator tomonidan qabul qilingan va Sextilis oyi rasman uning sharafiga Avgust deb o'zgartirilgan. Uning o'rnini o'gay o'g'li, sobiq kuyov va asrab olingan o'g'li Tiberiy egalladi.
https://uz.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Caesar

Avgust Tsezarning hayotidagi sanalar


36
31, 2 sentyabr
30, avgust
29, 13-15 avgust
27, 13 yanvar va 16

22
19, 12 oktyabr
18
17
17
17, 31 may
16-13

Iso Masih tug'ilishidan 27 yil oldin, Rim Senati Oktaviyaga Avgust nomini berdi. Avgust harbiy unvonidan kelib chiqqan birinchi "Imperator" bo'ldi imperator. Darhaqiqat, u birinchi senatorga aylandi, lekin u mohirlik bilan konsul, tribuna va boshqa idoralarning barcha vakolatlarini birlashtirdi va uning raqibi yo'q edi. Avgust ham zukko edi, chunki u eng kuchli harbiy viloyatlarni bevosita boshqargan. U Yuliy Tsezarning senatorlarga qarshi chiqish xatosidan qochish uchun aqlli edi. Avgust Dunay daryosi va Qora dengizgacha cho'zilgan buyuk Rim tinchligini (Pox Romana) olib keldi. Avgust aniq Rim tarixidagi eng buyuk imperator edi va "o'z mamlakatining otasi" unvoni munosib edi. U viloyatlarda ko'p dono va aniq qarorlar qabul qilib, Rimni g'ishtdan marmar shaharga aylantirgani bilan maqtangan. U 80 ga yaqin ma'badni tikladi, axloqni tartibga solishga harakat qildi va hatto o'z qizi Yuliyani axloqsizligi uchun quvib chiqardi. U nikoh va bola tug'ishni rag'batlantirgan va hatto buning uchun qonunlardan foydalangan. Aslida, uning ro'yxatga olish ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Rim fuqarolari miloddan avvalgi sakkizinchi yilda 4,000,000 dan milodiy 14 -yilda 5,000,000gacha o'sgan, Avgust hukmronligi davrida, Iso Masih Baytlahmda tug'ilgan. Agar u Avgust tomonidan buyurilgan ro'yxatga olish bo'lmaganida, barcha kattalar ota -bobolari shaharchasida ro'yxatdan o'tishni talab qilmaganida, u ota -onasi Yusuf va Maryamning uyi Nosirada tug'ilgan bo'lardi. romanemperors.com

Tsezar Avgust (Miloddan avvalgi 63-yil 14-asr), birinchi Rim imperatori Gay Oktaviy tug'ilgan (miloddan avvalgi 27-yilgacha) Oktaviyalik. U buyuk amakisi Yuliy Tsezarning irodasi bilan asrab olingan va miloddan avvalgi 31 yilda Antonini mag'lubiyatga uchratib, oliy hokimiyatga ega bo'lgan. Miloddan avvalgi 27 yilda unga Avgust unvoni berilgan va u amalda birinchi Rim imperatori bo'lgan. [Oksford lug'ati]

Tsezar Avgust (Lotincha: IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS) (miloddan avvalgi 63 -yil 23 -sentyabr - milodiy 14 -yil), Gay Yuliy Tsezar Oktavian (ingliz tilida, Oktavian) nomi bilan mashhur, miloddan avvalgi 27 -yilgacha bo'lgan umri davomida birinchi va Rim imperatorlarining eng muhimlari. Garchi u Rim respublikasining tashqi ko'rinishini saqlab qolgan bo'lsa -da, u 40 yildan ortiq avtokrat sifatida hukmronlik qilgan va uning hukmronligi respublika bilan Rim imperiyasini ajratuvchi chegaradir. U bir asrlik fuqarolar urushini tugatdi va Rimga tinchlik, farovonlik va imperiya buyukligi davrini berdi, uni Pax Romana, "Rim tinchligi" deb atashadi. "Keyingi to'rt yuz yil mobaynida Rim G'arbiy Evropa va Shimoliy Afrikada munitsipalitetlar tuzadi. yo'llar, jamoat binolari qurish va zamonaviy siyosiy tizimlarning asosini ta'minlaydigan boshqaruv infratuzilmasini qurish. Avgust jamoatchilik axloqi bilan shug'ullangan va qonunlar qabul qilgan. U mehnatsevarlik, intizom, itoatkorlik, taqvodorlik, san'at va madaniyatni qadrlash kabi & quot; respublika qadriyatlari & quot; deb o'ylagan narsalarga katta ishongan. U bolali er -xotinlarga soliq imtiyozlari berib, nikohni rag'batlantirdi, zinokorlikni jinoyatga aylantirdi, shuningdek, hashamat va isrofgarchilikni chekladi. U tinchlik fuqarolarning diniy burchlarini vijdonan bajarishiga bog'liq deb hisoblardi. U davlat kultining (pontifex maximus) boshlig'i va vaqtinchalik hukmdor bo'ldi. U provinsiya gubernatorlari muddatini uzaytirdi, chunki bu ko'proq barqarorlikni ta'minladi. Butun Evropada turli xil odamlar bir xil axloqiy kodeks va Rim qonuni bilan boshqariladigan bir dunyoga tegishli bo'lish tuyg'usiga ega bo'ldilar. Bu umumiy Evropa uyi hissi, hatto qorong'u asrlarda ham Evropa fikrini xabardor qilishni davom ettirdi va hozir ham Evropaning o'ziga xosligiga hissa qo'shmoqda. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari asoschilari Prezident lavozimini tashkil etishga qaror qilishganda, ular "Avgust davri" inauguratsiyasi haqida gapirishdi. Bu Avgust tinchligiga ham, o'z davrining yuqori madaniy yutug'iga ham tegishli. vatanparvarlik, tabiat olami va tarix unga bag'ishlangan. [Yangi dunyo entsiyasi]

Avgust - (Kayus Yuliy Tsar Octavianus) - Miloddan avvalgi 63 sentyabrda tug'ilgan "Avgust" sharafli unvonini olgan birinchi Rim imperatori. milodiy 14 avgust, 19 avgust, Kampaniya, Nola shahrida vafot etgan, u Kay Oktaviyning o'g'li edi. Yahudiylarga bo'lgan munosabatida u o'zining yagona merosxo'ri bo'lgan amakisi Yuliy Tsararning do'stona siyosatini davom ettirdi. Milliy dinga bo'lgan qiziqishni uyg'otish va davom ettirishdan juda xavotirlanib, u boshqa dinlarga nisbatan bag'rikenglikni birlashtirdi. Garchi u Sharq bo'ylab sayohat qilar ekan, Quddus ma'badida qurbonlik qilishni e'tiborsiz qoldirgan jiyani Klavdiyning yo'lini ma'qullagan bo'lsa -da, u boshqa paytlarda yahudiylarning muqaddas joyiga sovg'alar yuborish orqali ham, har kuni qurbonlik qilish orqali hamdardligini aniq ko'rsatdi. uning nomidan taklif qilinadi. Yahudiya - Avgust davrida, shuningdek, Yahudiya bir yarim asr davomida egalik qilgan haqiqiy yoki nominal mustaqillikni yo'qotdi va Rim provinsiyasi bo'ldi. Hirod vafotidan keyin (milodiy 3 -yil), Quddusdan ellik taniqli odamlardan iborat elchixona, Hirodiya sulolasining zolim hukmronligining davom etishiga norozilik bildirish va Avgust bilan Yahudiyani Suriyaga qo'shib olishni iltimos qilib, Rimga murojaat qildi. Yahudiya ichki avtonomiyasini tark etadigan engil magistraturani tayinlash. Taxminan 8000 Rim yahudiylari Apollon ibodatxonasida imperator tomonidan qabul qilingan delegatsiyaga qo'shilishdi. Bu harakatning dastlabki natijasi shundaki, Avgust Hirodning podshohligini etnarx etib tayinlagan Arxeley o'rtasida taqsimlab, unga yaxshi xulq -atvor kerak bo'lsa, shohlik unvonini va'da qildi va Filipp va Antipa, shuningdek, Hirodning singlisi Salomiga va ikki qizi uchun (ib. xvii. 11, p. 5). Bu vaqtda, Avgust Yahudiyaga yana bir yaxshi xizmat ko'rsatdi, u Hirodning taxtiga da'vogarni qo'ydi va jazoladi, u Sidondan kelib, Mariamnaning o'ldirilgan o'g'illaridan biri Aleksandrga o'tdi va Puteolidan Rimga tantanali safarida edi. ishongan yahudiylar orasida ko'plab izdoshlarga ega bo'ldi (ib. xvii. 12). - [Yahudiy entsiklopediyasi]



Rim imperatori Avgust portreti, Istanbul arxeologik muzeyi.



Birinchi Rim imperatorining yosh Oktavian haykali.

Rim xalqini ro'yxatga olish Ancyranum yodgorligi, 8 -band. Oltinchi konsulligimda Markus Agrippani hamkasb qilib, men odamlarni ro'yxatga oldim. Men qirq bir yildan keyin lustratsiyani ijro etdim. Bu rasmda Rim fuqarolari soni to'rt million oltmish uch ming edi. Gay Censorinus va Gaius Asinius konsulligida yana konsullik vakolatiga ega bo'ldim, men faqat lyustratsiya qildim. Bu ro'yxatga olishda Rim fuqarolari soni to'rt million ikki yuz o'ttiz ming edi. Uchinchi marta, Sextus Pompeius va Sextus Appuleiusning konsulligida konsullik vakolatini egallab, Tiberius Kresar hamkasbi sifatida men lustratsiya qildim. Bu lustratsiyada Rim fuqarolari soni to'rt million to'qqiz yuz o'ttiz etti ming edi. . . [ROM TARIXI SO'YBAT KITOBI]

Ba'zi Muqaddas Yozuvlarda & quot; Rim & quot;

Havoriylar 23:11 - Ertasi kuni Rabbiy uning yonida turib, dedi: "Sabr qil, Pavlus, chunki sen Quddusda men haqimda guvohlik berganingdek, guvohlik ber. Rim.

2 Timo'tiyga 4:22 - Rabbimiz Iso Masih ruhingiz bilan bo'lsin. Inoyat siz bilan bo'lsin. Omin. Efesliklar cherkovining birinchi episkopi etib tayinlangan Timoteusga yozilgan [ikkinchi [maktub] Rim, Polni ikkinchi marta Neron oldiga olib kelishganida.] & gt

Havoriylar 18: 2 - Va yaqinda Italiyadan, Pontusda tug'ilgan, Akila ismli yahudiyni topdi, uning rafiqasi Priskilla bilan (chunki Klavdiy hamma yahudiylarga ketishni buyurgan edi) Rim:) va ularga keldi.

Kolosaliklarga 4:18 - Menga Polning salomlari. Mening qarzlarimni eslang. Inoyat siz bilan bo'lsin. Omin. & lt [dan yozilgan Rim Tixik va Onesim tomonidan Kolosaliklarga.] & gt

Efesliklarga 6:24 - Rabbimiz Iso Masihni chin dildan sevuvchilarga inoyat bo'lsin. Omin. & lt [Efesliklarga yozilgan Rim, Tychicus tomonidan.] & gt

Filimun 1:25 - Rabbimiz Iso Masihning inoyati ruhingiz bilan bo'lsin. Omin. & lt [dan yozilgan Rim xizmatkor Onesim tomonidan Filimo'nga.] & gt

Havoriylar 2:10 - Frigiya va Pamfiliya, Misrda va Liviyaning Kireney va uning chet elliklari. RimYahudiylar va prozelitlar,

Havoriylar 19:21 - After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rim.

Acts 28:16 - And when we came to Rim, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

Romans 1:7 - To all that be in Rim, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Galatians 6:18 - Brethren, the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with your spirit. Omin. <[To [the] Galatians written from Rim.]>

Philippians 4:23 - The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you all. Omin. <[To [the] Philippians written from Rim, by Epaphroditus.]>

Acts 28:14 - Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rim.

Romans 1:15 - So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rim also.

2 Timothy 1:17 - But, when he was in Rim, he sought me out very diligently, and found [me].

Some Scriptures mentioning the word "Augustus"

Luke 2:1 - And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Avgust, that all the world should be taxed.


Acts 27:1 - And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners unto [one] named Julius, a centurion of Avgust' band.

Acts 25:21 - But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the hearing of Avgust, I commanded him to be kept till I might send him to Caesar.

Acts 25:25 - But when I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death, and that he himself hath appealed to Avgust, I have determined to send him.


Mausoleum of Augustus Resurrected in Rome: Set to Open Early 2021

The final resting place of Rome’s first Emperor is opening to the public after 14 years. Built a couple of thousand years ago, the circular Mausoleum of Augustus stands in the centre of the city, close to the River Tiber.

Surprisingly unloved till now, it’s been restored thanks to local investment. Telecoms company TIM have provided the bulk of the money. 137 feet high and 295 ft wide, this concentric structure took 3 years and $17.5 million to bring up to scratch. A sum fit for a ruler indeed!

Emperor Caesar Augustus was a long way off dying when he commissioned the Mausoleum aged 35. Yet he had much to crow about, having won the Battle of Actium. The conflict paved a path to power for Augustus, who headed up the Roman Empire as people know it today.

What look like ruins in the 21st century were spectacularly different back then. Atlas Obscura writes the Mausoleum was “originally topped by a conical roof and possibly a statue of Augustus.” Its Hellenistic style is thought to have been influenced by Alexander The Great’s tomb.

A visitor takes photos of the Mausoleum of Augustus, the biggest mausoleum ever built by the ancient Romans, in central Rome on May 2, 2017 during a press access within the second phase of its archaeological restoration. ANDREAS SOLARO/AFP via Getty Images

Smithsonian Magazine covered the announcement of the project in 2017. Referring to various sources, it states: “The walls were made of brick covered in shining white travertine (limestone).”

Outside stood the “Res Gestae Divi Augusti”. An inscribed chronicle of the Emperor’s achievements, it’s the mightiest boast in town and set in stone to boot.

Contained within the Mausoleum are chambers, featuring urns from an illustrious dynasty. Joining Augustus’ nearest and dearest are other figures, such as Emperors Vespasian, Nero and Tiberius.

A grand monument to Augustus indeed. However, it wasn’t always sombre and respectful inside the tomb during that period. Parties were apparently held there, according to the Daily Mail.

The Emperor finally got to use his creation when he passed away in 14 CE. Augustus’s Mausoleum went on to be used by the military. At one point a fort was built over it, as reported by Atlas Obscura. It also suffered the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune… quite literally, when Visigoths assaulted the structure in 410 CE. On a more sedate note, the Mausoleum once hosted a hanging garden.

Going into the 20th century it became an unlikely concert venue. Rome’s bloody past was never far away – bullfights are known to have been held at the location.

One similarly powerful figure who wanted to resurrect the Emperor’s Mausoleum was Mussolini. The Piazza around the building exists because of the dictator, though the medieval architecture around it was swept aside according to website Wanted In Rome.

Access has been restricted for almost a century. The public were completely shut out in 2007, owing to safety concerns. Wanted In Rome mentions a previous and failed attempt to restore the building, in time for the 2,000th anniversary of the Emperor’s death (2014).

2021 is also a special year, with authorities celebrating the founding of Rome itself. Visitors will be able to pop into the Mausoleum for free until April 21st. It was on this date in 753 BC that twins Romulus and Remus are said to have established the legendary location.

Ethan Doyle White – CC BY-SA 4.0

Smithsonian Magazine reported in 2017 that a major part of the operation was removing a vast amount of plant life and general littering. Some archaeological work is referred to, together with the installation of tourist-friendly resources. The Mail writes that a virtual reality tour is in the offing.

Wanted In Rome talks about the knock on effect the Mausoleum restoration should have on central Rome. From this will come “the gradual pedestrianisation of the surrounding area and the relocation of the existing bus terminus.”

Quoted by the Mail, Mayor of Rome Virginia Raggi says: “To reopen a monument like this is a signal of hope”.

By celebrating its rich past, the city is looking to a pandemic-free future…


2,000-year-old marble head of Rome’s first emperor discovered

(CNN) — A 2,000-year-old marble head of Augustus, Rome’s first emperor, has been discovered in Isernia, an Italian town in the south central region of Molise.

Archaeologist Francesco Giancola made the exceptional discovery during restoration works to repair a medieval wall that collapsed due to strong rains in 2013.

Giancola was following the works on behalf of the municipality of Isernia, but told CNN Thursday he didn’t expect such a major find.

“While we were digging behind the wall, I saw that the earth changed color,” he said.

“So we continued digging with precision trowels and a block of marble has come out. I immediately saw that it was a head that I recognized as belonging to a statue of Augustus due to the hair and the shape and cut of the eyes.”

Giancola said he immediately called the authorities, the mayor, and the cultural heritage ministry.

The 35-centimeter (13.78-inch) high head can be dated to between 20 BC and 10 AD, according to Maria Diletta Colombo, an archaeologist at the regional department of the ministry.

“It was an important statue, but we do not know why it was here,” she told CNN. “It could have been placed in a temple dedicated to the cult of the imperial family, or in the forum. But these are just hypotheses, since we don’t know where the forum was.”

Some of her colleagues cried with joy when they made the discovery, Colombo added, and it was a moment she said she will remember forever.

The head is likely to have been detached from a statue that was more than 2 meters (6 feet 7 inches), Colombo said. It is made from the same Lunigiana marble used by the Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo, and it depicts a young Augustus Octavian, who became Rome’s first emperor in 27 BC.

Isernia, known as Aesernia in the ancient world, was the home of an Italic people named the Samnites. It later became a Roman colony. The town was partially destroyed during World War II but was rebuilt.

“Isernia has a very ancient history… there are archaeological remains underneath the whole city,” the town’s mayor Giacomo D’Apollonio told CNN. “It is a very important find for Isernia because it demonstrates the presence of buildings of a certain importance.”

The excavation also revealed empty medieval tombs and terracotta artifacts, said the mayor.

The head is currently being studied and both D’Apollonio and Colombo would like to see it stay in the town’s Santa Maria delle Monache museum, where they believe it would attract more tourists.

“Even Isernia, although it is not among the main tourist destinations, is an area rich in history since the Palaeolithic [era],” said D’Apollonio.

Augustus built an empire that would eventually stretch from the UK to Egypt, and boasted on his death bed that he “found Rome built of bricks and left it marble.”

The-CNN-Wire™ & © 2021 Cable News Network, Inc., a Time Warner Company. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.


Catherine Teitz 󈧒: Classical Statues of Brown University

Two classical statues – often misidentified, confused, and abused – have watched over campus life since they were dedicated more than 100 years ago. Marcus Aurelius and Caesar Augustus guard their greens, providing a block for studying students to lean against and an elevated platform to advertise everything from events to holidays. These statues, modeled on Roman originals, were gifts of Moses Brown Ives Goddard, class of 1854.

Marcus Aurelius statue in the snow (Photo by Catherine Teitz)

Marcus Aurelius

The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius sits at the western end of Simmons Quadrangle (formerly known as Lincoln Field), looking east across the green, through the gate of Soldier’s Arch. Moses I. B. Goddard commissioned and funded the statue but he died before it was completed. His brother, Col. Robert Hale Ives Goddard 1858, continued the project and dedicated the statue on June 1 st , 1908[1].

The statue at Brown is a copy of one now housed in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, and one of only two replicas in the world. The original statue, likely cast during Marcus Aurelius’ reign in the second century CE, is the only bronze equestrian statue from antiquity extant today. Not only did it survive multiple sacks of the city, it also remained standing in front of the Lateran palace, in the area of the city where Aurelius was born and educated, until it was moved in 1538 to the Capitoline Hill[2]. There it sat on a new base made of stone from the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum which was carved by Michelangelo[3]. It remained in public until 1981 when it was moved to the Capitoline Museum after suffering pollution damage, and a replica, the second one made, took its place[4].

Marcus Aurelius at Brown has had a shorter and comparatively less exciting history than his Roman counterpart, but it has not been entirely without trials and tribulations. In the 1980s a plan was proposed to develop Lincoln Field into Olin Lecture Hall, which would destroy the green space, the view of Sayles, and the domain of Marcus Aurelius[5]. An opinion piece on the front page of the Brown Daily Herald describes the threat and the student response, a petition with over 1,000 signatures, as well as how the faculty of entire departments opposed the development and spoke out in the Corporation meetings. As the author H. Meyer III enumerates what would be lost if Lincoln were developed, he also asks,

The base of Marcus Aurelius statue, under repair (Brown Daily Herald, 8 March, 1991)

Under whose shade will future generations of Brunonians rest? The familiar statue of Marcus Aurelius will no longer be there to watch over us. By the way, do we know to where he will be transplanted? The Campus Planning Committee’s idea of the perfect new location will probably be near Ladd Observatory, on the far outreaches of campus, several miles down Hope Street. I go there all the time, how about you?[6]

The regular sight of Marcus Aurelius is part of the daily life of Brown students, as a landmark walking to class or as a backrest while sitting in the grass. His disappearance, even if brief, is enough to stir student response, again in the Brown Daily Herald. When the statue was taken down in March of 1991 for maintenance to the base, the front-page headline ran “Marcus Aurelius Gone from Lincoln Field” accompanied by a dramatic picture of his empty plinth[7]. Due to water damage, the cement structure and marble panels were weakening, risking the statue toppling to the ground, and needed to be removed and replaced. Now repaired, Marcus Aurelius continues his watch, which he has been standing for 105 years. He is a key figure on Brown’s Campus, even if students cannot always remember which Roman his statue represents, regularly confusing him with another connection to the classical past.

Statue of Caesar Augustus, Wriston Quad (Wikimedia Commons)

Caesar Augustus

The bronze statue of Caesar Augustus was first dedicated in front of Rhode Island Hall on the Main Green by Moses B. I. Goddard on September 19, 1906[8]. It was modeled on the marble Augustus of Prima Porta statue, now in the Vatican Museum, replicating exactly its size and fine details[9]. The Prima Porta statue is one of the most iconic pieces of classical art, embodying Greek sculptural traditions – Augustus’ posed is based on that of the Doryphoros – and Roman iconography – the cuirass depicts Augustus’ establishment of the Pax Romana and the return of Roman standards from the Parthians[10]. The presence of a copy of this statue at Brown reflects classical influence on education at the time of its donation, although the students have not always seen Augustus’ presence as a purely educational one.

Although Augustus began his Brown life on the Main Green, and suffered the trauma of arm-removal there during the hurricane of 1938, his presence is associated mostly strongly with his post in Hughes Court, better known as Wriston Quad. He was moved there in 1952 when the Wriston complex of dorms was first opened[11]. His move was not without controversy, as an editorial piece, and its follow-up, in the Brown Daily Herald illustrate. The editors feel strongly that his presence with a walkway and the Sharpe Refectory to his back is a tactical move that Augustus would not approve, and his presence among Georgian Colonial architecture is one that “Caesar, the aesthete, would abhor.”[12] More pressing than the tactical and artistic problems of Augustus’ move is that his new location made him a target for practical jokers who left beer cans on his head as the editors observed, “we missed the rise, but still detect the fall of the Roman Empire.”[13] Their concerns were met with scorn from the administration, but as a follow-up editorial published a month later observed, they were not far from the mark. Caesar continued to be abused, this time not only with a beer can, but also a dead red-shouldered hawk in his outstretched hand. The editors commented that “despite the greenish color of the rest of [Augustus’] body, his face was distinctly red.”[14] Perhaps due to a change in location, from the academic to social heart of campus, Augustus’ role changed from one of exemplar of classical aesthetic to advertiser of fraternity parties.

Marcus Aurelius with festive Hallowe’en pumpkins (Photo by Catherine Teitz)

Despite the hubbub of campus swirling around them, Marcus Aurelius and Caesar Augustus remain stalwart on their plinths. Since their dedications they have become consistent campus landmarks, points to discuss on tours, and useful places to make a statement. Marcus Aurelius has held a jack-o-lantern in preparation for Halloween, Augustus has been wrapped as a mummy, and both hold banners advertising concerts on a regular basis (Fig. 5). These are fine ways of incorporating university landmarks into student life, methods of advertising that utilize some of the highest traffic and most glanced at areas of campus. However, it is concerning that this seems to be the extent of student (and university) interaction with these statues. Brown’s physical campus has a rich history that connects with many different academic disciplines, and education about these – and other monuments on campus – could easily be incorporated in the curriculum.

More troubling is the neglect and lack of respect for our two classical guardians. This summer, the side of Marcus Aurelius’ plinth had “stay human” written across the side in black spray paint (Fig. 6). Facilities did they best they could to remove it, but the text is still visible. For anyone knowledgeable of Aurelius’ philosophy and deeds, they would find him one of the more human Roman emperors. Instead, he has become an object to tag, a symbol of a space dominated, rather than dominance. Augustus has suffered a similar fate, neglected by the university his bronze has become so corroded and covered with bird droppings that he is no longer recognizable as the cast of the Prima Porta. Without cleaning and perhaps restoration, he will wear into nothingness as a dress-form for fraternity t-shirts. These statues, having served generations of Brown students in so many different ways, deserve more than our passing glance.

Graffito on the base of the statue of Marcus Aurelius encouraging us to ‘Stay Human’ (Photo by Catherine Teitz)


File:Egyptianized statue of Augustus. Roman Period. Misr san'ati davlat muzeyi, Myunxen.jpg

Faylni o'sha paytdagi ko'rinishini ko'rish uchun sana/vaqtni bosing.

Sana/vaqtEskizO'lchamlariFoydalanuvchiSharh
hozirgi17:06, 13 iyul 2018 yil3,768 × 2,686 (5.84 MB) Neuroforever (munozara | hissa) UploadWizard yordamida foydalanuvchi yaratgan sahifa

Bu faylni qayta yozib bo'lmaydi.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Yangi Ozbekiston va Yangi Tolibon: Afgonistonda nima gap 2