Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida Qo'shma Shtatlardagi italyan va italyan-amerikalik lagerlar

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida Qo'shma Shtatlardagi italyan va italyan-amerikalik lagerlar

Shunday qilib, men Amerika tarixi darsi uchun Power Point yaratyapman va men italiyalik amerikalik lagerlar uchun xaritani topa olmayapman. Men nemis amerikalik va yapon amerikalik interment lager xaritalarini topdim, lekin bu shunday.


Turli xil onlayn manbalar qatorlarini o'qish (afsuski, Vikipediya haqidagi maqolalar), aniqlanishicha, italiyalik amerikalik stajyorlarning maxsus lagerlari bo'lmagan, aksincha, nemis-amerikalik va yapon-amerikalik stajyorlar uchun qulay bo'lgan.

Ko'rinib turibdiki, Italiya Mehnat Harakatining (va shubhasiz, bu yer osti sheriklari tomonidan) kuchli lobbichilik qilgani sababli, aslida ito-amerikaliklar faqat qonunbuzarlik yoki shubhali sodiqlik dalillari bor edi. Natijada, italyan-amerikalik internirlanganlar soni 2 mingdan kam bo'lishi mumkin edi (garchi 1942 yilning dastlabki kunlarida ularning ko'pchiligi ro'yxatdan o'tishi kerak edi).

Fedlar mafiya bilan 1942 va 1943 yillar mobaynida sodiqligi to'g'risida muzokaralar olib borgani haqida mish -mishlar tarqaldi.


75 yil o'tgach, Bay Area italiyalik amerikaliklar urush vaqtidagi cheklovlarni, internirlashni eslaydilar

"Bu eski Italiya mahallasi", deydi Al Bronzini. "Bu men o'sgan uy, o'sha erda." Al menga qariyb 80 yil oldin Sharqiy Oklendda o'sishi uchun muhim bo'lgan joylarni ko'rsatmoqda. "Bolam, bu boshqacha", deydi u. "Qoyil."

U mashinani to'xtatish uchun biroz noqulay, shuning uchun u haydovchi o'rindig'idan narsalarni ko'rsatadi. U cho'zilgan bino oldida sekinlashadi. "Fruitvale Banana Depo - bu ko'k binoning o'zi", deydi u. "Biz bananlarni orqa tomondan temir yo'l orqali tushirardik."

Bugungi kunda bu bino avtoulovlar do'koni, lekin 1930 -yillarda u otasining meva bozori bo'lgan. Bu hukumat onasi va otasini "dushman musofirlar" deb belgilashidan oldin edi va oila deyarli hamma narsani yo'qotdi.

Alning ota -onasi Klara va Gvido Bronzini 1920 -yillarning oxirida Italiyani vayron qilganidan so'ng 1920 -yillarning oxirida Italiyaning Piza shahri yaqinidagi shaharchadan AQShga kelishdi: na ekinlar, na ish, na kelajak, na fashistlar hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritishdi.

Al onasining unga uyiga fashistlar o'smirligida kelganini aytganini eslaydi. "Mening bobom, uning otasi, u fashistik bayroqni ko'tarishdan bosh tortgan", deb eslaydi u. "Shunday qilib, ular bobomni qiynashdi."

Klara va Gvido iloji boricha Italiyani tark etishdi. Ular kelganidan so'ng, Amerika ularga Italiya qila olmaydigan hamma narsani berdi. Birinchidan, ular Melroz tumanidan uy sotib olishdi. Keyin muz qutisini almashtirish uchun muzlatgich va 4 eshikli yangi Pontiac. Nihoyat, ular eng yaxshi Philco radiosiga ega bo'lishdi. Mahallada faqat bir nechta oilada bitta oila bor edi.

Al aytadi: "Bu chet eldan stansiyalarni qabul qilishi mumkin". Uning otasi opera o'ynagan. "U chiroyli opera musiqasini yaxshi ko'rardi. Radio eshitib, hayot yaxshi edi. Hayot ular o'ylaganidan ham yaxshiroq edi. ”

Hayot shunchalik yaxshi ediki, Klara va Gvido fuqarolik hujjatlarini rasmiylashtirishni unutdilar. Bu kerak emasdek tuyuldi. Italiya va AQSh o'rtasidagi munosabatlar yaxshi edi. Hammasi 1939 yilda, Italiya va fashistlar Germaniyasi birlashganda o'zgara boshladi. Al Bronzini onasini eslaydi, ayniqsa uning Italiyaga bo'lgan sevgisi va Amerikadagi yangi uyiga bo'lgan muhabbati o'rtasida.

"U ko'zlarini yig'lab yubordi", deb eslaydi u. "U nima bo'layotganiga ishonolmadi. Va eng yomoni hali oldinda edi. "

Bu Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari urushga kirganidan atigi ikki oy o'tib, 1941 yil dekabrda keldi. Al o'n uch yoshda edi. U uyiga ikkita politsiyachi kelganida, oilasi bilan kechki ovqat eyayotganini eslaydi.

"Ular:" Janob. Bronzini, biz sizning uyingizni qidirishimiz kerak. Siz dushmanlarning begona ro'yxatidasiz. ”

Endi Klara va Gvido Kaliforniyadagi "dushman musofirlari" deb nomlangan 50,000 italiyalik muhojirlardan ikkitasi edi.

"Ular uyni tintuv qilishdi", deydi Al. "Hech narsa topilmadi. Shunday qilib, ular: "Filko radiosini olishimiz kerak", deyishdi.

Chiroqlar, kameralar va qisqa to'lqinli radiolar kontrabanda hisoblangan.

U onasi politsiyaga: "Iltimos, radioimni olmang", - deb iltijo qilganini eslaydi va u yig'lab, tortib, yolvorayotganda, ular uni eshikdan olib chiqib ketishdi, - deydi u.

Hukumat komendantlik soati qo'ydi va "dushman musofiri" deb nomlangan har bir kishiga sayohat cheklovlarini qo'ydi. Alning ota -onasi ruxsatisiz uydan besh mil uzoqlikda yura olmasdilar. Klara va Gvido va "dushman musofirlari" deb nomlangan 600 ming boshqa italiyaliklar milliy ro'yxatga olish kitobiga qo'shilishlari va fotosuratlar va shaxsiy ma'lumotlarni taqdim etishlari kerak edi.

Al aytadi: "Ular har juma kutubxonaga borib, o'zlarining begona kitoblariga muhr bosishlari kerak edi".

Keyin harbiylar taqiqlangan zonalarni yaratdilar. Bu sohil va neft konlari kabi strategik ob'ektlar atrofidagi joylar edi. Oilaning meva bozori o'sha zonalardan birida edi.

"Shunday qilib, otamga sevimli Banana Deposi unga taqiqlanganligi to'g'risida xabar keldi", deb tushuntiradi Al.

Qaysidir ma'noda, bronzinilar boshqalarga qaraganda omadliroq bo'lishgan. Ular o'z uylarini saqlashlari kerak edi. Taqiqlangan zonalar Pitsburg, Alameda va San -Frantsiskodagi qirg'oq uylaridan qariyb 10 mingga yaqin boshqa italiyalik muhojirlarni majbur qildi. AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari italiyalik baliqchilarga tegishli qayiqlarni musodara qildi. Banana omboridan daromad olmagan holda, Guido ish topa oladigan joyni egalladi. Ammo "dushman musofir" degan tamg'a unga ergashdi.

"Bir oz suhbat va bingo, bu odam" dushman begona ". U bu erdan chiqib ketdi ", deydi u.

Alning onasi uchun Italiyada qochib ketgan hayoti va Amerikadagi yangi cheklovlar o'rtasidagi o'xshashlik kuchayib borardi.

Al shunday deydi: "U italyan tilida:" Non abbiamo fatto niente a nessuno. Biz hech kimga hech narsa qilmaganmiz. Nega bunday bo'lyapti? ''

Bu shunchalik yomonki, Klara ruhiy tushkunlikka tushib, kasalxonaga yotqizilgan. "Bu aqldan ozgan ayol emas edi", deydi u. "Bu o'z qadr -qimmatidan mahrum bo'lgan ayol."

Al bir yakshanba kuni otasi va akasi bilan uning oldiga borganini eslaydi. Uni bunday ko'rganini eslash hali ham qiyin. "U to'shagida, tekis kurtkada o'tirardi. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri kurtka, - dedi u ko'z yoshlarini yirtib tashlab.

Bir yil ichida hukumat italiyalik "dushman musofirlar" ga qo'yilgan cheklovlarni bekor qildi, bu ularning Amerikaga sodiqligini ko'rsatdi. Bronzini oilasida Klara asta -sekin sog'ayib ketdi. Guido Banana omborini qayta ochdi. U va Klara haqiqatan ham Amerika fuqaroligiga aylandi. Alning aytishicha, bu ularning hayotidagi eng baxtli kunlardan biri edi. "Ular hech qachon AQShni davolashda ayblamagan", deydi u. "Ular o'zlarini ayblashdi."

Alning aytishicha, uning ota -onasi Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida nima bo'lganini hech qachon gapirmagan. Al, o'zi, bu haqda ellik yil gapirmagan. "Bu o'tmishda bo'lgan", deb tushuntiradi u. "Bu haqda gapirish qanday yaxshi bo'lardi?"

Minglab italiyalik muhojirlar bundan ham ko'proq narsani yo'qotdilar: erkinlik. Ular hibsga olindi, qurolli soqchilar tomonidan qamoqqa tashlandi, mahalliy qamoqxonalarda tikanli simlar ortida ushlab turildi.

"Qoyil. Bu haqiqatan ham bu erda yashiringan, shunday emasmi? ” deydi tarixchi Lorens DiStasi.

U va men San -Frantsiskodan 20 daqiqa janubda joylashgan Sharp parkiga bordik. Men AQSh avtomagistralini yuzlab marta haydadim, men o'sha sobiq tergov izolyatorlaridan birining yonidan o'tayotganimni bilmaganman.

DiStasi shunday deydi: "Bu asosan vaqtinchalik hibsga olingan. Yaponlar bor edi, ular doimiy lagerlariga jo'natilmaguncha shu erda saqlanishardi. Bu, shuningdek, turli ayblovlar bilan hibsga olingan kishilar uchun ham edi ”.

U Italiyadan kelgan muhojirlar va "dushman musofirlari" deb nomlangan ba'zi nemislar, meksikaliklar va kanadaliklar haqida gapiradi. Buning hech qachon bu erda bo'lganini bilmaganimning bir sababi shundaki, bu erda hibsxonadan hech narsa qolmagan. Bir marta, bu joyni o'n metrli panjara o'rab olgan va kazarmalar bir vaqtning o'zida 2500 mahbusni ushlab turishgan. Ammo bugungi kunda bu evkalipt bilan qoplangan tepaliklar bilan o'ralgan tekis o'tloqli maydon.

"Bu erda tasvirlash qiyin bo'lgan narsa bor yoki yo'q", deydi DiStasi. “Bu erda tikanli simlar ortida odamlar bor edi. Bu deyarli dahshatli, chunki hozir bu yer bukollik joy. Bularning barchasi chiroyli daraxtlar. Ammo o'sha paytda bukololik emas edi. Bu erda odamlarni ushlab turish juda xafa bo'ldi. ”

Bu kabi hibsxonalar Bay hududi va AQSh bo'ylab tarqalgan. Ichkarida, yuzlab italiyalik muhojirlar, lagerlarda, KonstanzaForanning otasi kabi, saqlanar edi. U hozir 82 yoshda, lekin u atigi olti yoshda edi, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari hukumati otasini hibsga olib, Montanadagi lagerga yubordi.

"Esimda, bu g'alati odamlar kelib, otamni olib ketishgan", deydi u. "Bu juda tez bo'ldi. Ular shunchaki uni olib ketishdi. Otam juda xotirjam edi. Menimcha, u dunyoda sodir bo'layotgan voqealardan xabardor bo'lgani uchun nimadir sodir bo'lishidan juda ajablandi.

Kostanzaning otasi AQSh urushga kirganidan taxminan ikki hafta o'tgach olingan, lekin bundan bir necha yillar oldin FTB "potentsial xavfli" deb hisoblagan odamlarni yashirincha kuzatib kelgan. FTB italiyalik ijtimoiy klublarga qo'shilgan, italyan gazetalariga obuna bo'lgan va italyan tilidagi maktablarda dars bergan muhojirlarni ro'yxatga kiritdi. Kostanzaning otasi Karmelo Ilakka italiyalik muhojirlar jamiyatida faol bo'lgan va Italiya konsulligida ishlagan.

"San -Frantsiskodagi ko'p odamlar bu sodir bo'lganini hatto bilishmagan, chunki ular bu erda ikki yoki uch avlod bo'lishgan", deydi Kostanza.

Uning otasi qo'yib yuborildi va Italiya taslim bo'lganidan keyin uyiga qaytishga ruxsat berildi. Ko'p o'tmay, AQSh armiyasi u bilan bog'lanib, u o'z harbiy ofitserlariga italyan tilini o'rgatishini so'radi.

U kuladi va shunday deydi: «Men aytmoqchimanki, otam buni hazil deb o'ylardi. U: "Men amerikalik ofitserlar bilan salomlashdim, endi ular menga salom berishlari kerak. Men o'qituvchiman. ”

Urushdan keyin hukumat italiyalik "dushman musofirlar" haqidagi ma'lumotlarni tasnifladi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, amerikaliklarning avlodlari, shu jumladan italiyalik amerikaliklar, nima bo'lganini hech qachon bilishmagan. "Bu boshdan kechirgan odamlar uchun ham, bu haqda hech narsa bilmagan har bir kishi uchun ham sirli hikoya", deydi tarixchi Lourens DiStasi. "Bundan tashqari, ellik yil davomida inkor etib kelgan hukumatning o'zi."

90 -yillarning oxirida italiyalik amerikaliklar, shu jumladan Lourens DiStasi Kongressni urush paytida italiyalik muhojirlarga fuqarolik huquqlarining buzilishi sifatida munosabatini tekshirishga chaqirdi.

"Biz bu dahshatli voqealar hech qachon takrorlanmasligiga ishonch hosil qilishimiz kerak", dedi Nyu -York Kongressi a'zosi Eliot Engel, Kongressda. "Bizning hukumatimiz qila oladigan narsa bu voqealar sodir bo'lganligini tan olib, bu dahshatli xatolarni tuzatishga urinishdir".

Ular urush paytida italiyalik muhojirlarga bo'lgan munosabat haqida ma'lumot beradigan qonun qabul qilishdi. O'tgan oyda, Kremniy vodiysining vakili, Kongress a'zosi Zoe Lofgren ikkita qonun loyihasini kiritdi: birinchisi Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida italiyalik muhojirlarga bo'lgan munosabatni targ'ib qiladi. Ikkinchisi bunday davolanish uchun uzr so'raydi.

Biroq, odamlar tarixni boshqacha talqin qilishadi. Prezidentlik kampaniyasi paytida, ABC telekanali Jorj Stefanopolous bilan gaplashayotganda, Donald Trump Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi paytida italiyalik muhojirlarga qo'yilgan cheklovlarga ishora qilib, musulmonlarning AQShga kirishini taqiqlash rejasini taqdim etdi. Mana ularning almashinuvi transkripti:

TRUMP: Men qilayotgan ish FDR-nemislar, italiyalik yaponlar uchun FDR echimidan farq qilmaydi.

STEPANOPOL: Siz lagerlarga bormisiz?

TRUMP- Demoqchimanki, bilasizmi, FDR ko'p yillar oldin nima qilganini ko'rib chiqing va u eng hurmatli prezidentlardan biri - men ko'pchilik odamlar hurmat qiladi. Ular avtomobil yo'llarini uning nomi bilan atashdi.

STEPHANOPOULOS: Siz bunday siyosatni qaytarishni xohlaysizmi?

TRUMP: Yo'q, men uni qaytarishni xohlamayman, Jorj, umuman. Men buni umuman yoqtirmayman. Bu vaqtinchalik chora.

Tarixchi DiStasining aytishicha, bugungi kunda sodir bo'layotgan voqealar Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida italiyalik muhojirlarga bo'lgan munosabatda bo'lgani kabi noto'g'ri.

"Bu odamlarni kim bo'lgani va qaerdan bo'lgani uchun nishonga olgandi", deydi u. Yo'q, ular qo'shganidek, ular qilgan har bir ishi uchun.

Lourens DiStasiga meni Al Bronzini va Kostanza Foran bilan tanishtirgani uchun minnatdorman, ularning hikoyalari DiStasi kitoblarida aytilgan, Una Storia Segreta: Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida italiyalik amerikaliklarni evakuatsiya qilish va internirlashning sirli tarixi va Markali: Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida italiyalik muhojirlar qanday qilib "dushman" bo'lishgan, bu hikoyadagi tadqiqotlarning ko'p qismi bunga asoslangan edi. Men bu kitob haqida ko'proq bilib olishni tavsiya qilaman.

AQSh Kongressi a'zosi Zoe Lofgren quyidagi qonunlarga homiylik qildi:


Qo'shma Shtatlardagi Italiya harbiy asirlari

Yillar o'tishi bilan, aniqrog'i 68, Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi xotiralari tobora uzoqlashib bormoqda. Afsuski, tarixning ba'zi qismlari har doim ham esga olinmaydi va ko'pincha tan olinmaydi. Qizig'i shundaki, bugungi kunda qancha yoshlar asirga olingan italiyaliklar, nemislar, yaponlar urush teatrlaridan olib tashlanganini va AQShdagi lagerlarga olib kelinganini tushunishadi. Bu harbiy asirlarning mavzusi kelmaydi, menimcha. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi qatnashchilari soni tobora kamayib bormoqda.

Vaqti -vaqti bilan urushning unutilgan tomonlarini yoritadigan roman nashr etiladi. Aqlli va shirin burchagidagi mehmonxona va taslim bo'lish iztirobi - Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi yapon harbiy asirlari esga tushadi. Ulardan birida amerikalik yaponlarning internirlanishi, ularning to'planishi, ular boshidan kechirgan sharoitlari va urushdan keyingi oqibatlari haqida so'z boradi. Ikkinchisi yaponlarning taslim bo'lishdan nafratlanishi haqida. Men biladigan hech qanday Amerika romani Qo'shma Shtatlardagi italiyalik harbiy asirlar haqida hikoya qilmaydi.

Bir necha yil oldin nomli hujjatli film Jannatdagi mahbuslar ular o'z hikoyalarini aytib berishdi, lekin roman (tarixiy-fantastik yoki badiiy bo'lmagan) paydo bo'lmadi. Italiyada AQSh mahbuslari AQShning harbiy asirlar lagerlaridagi tajribalari haqida asarlar nashr etishdi, lekin men bu kitoblarning bu erda tarjima qilinishini va sotilishini bilmayman. Bu juda achinarli, chunki ularning hikoyasini eslab qolish kerak.

1940-1945 yillar oralig'ida 425000 harbiy asir Amerika tuprog'iga qo'ndi. Bu odamlarning asosiy qismi (350 ming) Germaniyadan edi. Uch shtatdan tashqari barcha nemis, italyan va yapon lagerlari bor edi – Nevada, Vermont va Shimoliy Dakota. Ular Sharqiy qirg'oqda Gubernator oroli (NYC), Raritan Arsenal (NJ), Fort Monmut (NJ) Port -Jonson (NJ), Bruklin (NY), Kamp Shanks (Rokland okrugi, NY), (Bayonne) kabi joylarda bo'lishgan. G'arbiy Sohilda ular San -Frantsisko ko'rfazidagi Anjel orolidagi eski qal'ada, Los -Anjeles, O'rta G'arbiy (Michigan, Viskonsin, Nebraska va Illinoys), Shimoli -G'arbiy, (Vayominq, Yuta, Kolorado) ) va Janub (Luiziana, Texas, Alabama shtati.) Odatda bu lagerlar ularni joylashtirish uchun sharoitlar mavjud bo'lgan va urush tufayli ishchi kuchi tanqis bo'lgan hududlarga joylashtirilardi (fabrikalar, fermalar, o'q -dorilar omborlari, portlar, va boshqalar).

Italiya harbiy asirlari soni 51,000 edi va 18 shtatdagi 21 ta lagerga joylashtirildi. Umuman olganda, italyan askarlari ittifoqchilarga hamdard edi. Buni bilgan hukumat ularga Italiyadan voz kechish va Italiya xizmat ko'rsatish bo'linmalariga qo'shilish imkoniyatini berdi. Agar ular shunday qilsalar, ularga yaxshi muomala qilishar, o'z muassasalarida ish berishar va ruxsat bilan harakatlanish erkinligiga ega bo'lishar edi. General qo'shin Yaponiya bilan jang qilish uchun bo'linib ketishidan qo'rqib, rozi bo'ldi. Ko'proq ma'lumotli bo'lgan va fashizmga o'rgatilgan ofitserlar bundan bosh tortishgan. Ular haqiqiy vijdon inqirozini boshdan kechirishdi va o'z ishlariga sodiqligini his qilishdi. Agar erkaklar Italiyaga qasamyod qilishda davom etishsa, ular talablarga javob bermaydilar, NONSga havola qilinadi va ko'plari Texasning Hereford shahriga jo'natiladi. To'rt ming italiyalik ofitser Gereford rezerviga joylashtirildi.

Italiyalik mahbuslarni NY/NJ va Boston hududida quchoq ochib kutib olishadi deb o'ylash mumkin edi, lekin ularga birinchi bor kelganlarida shubha bilan qarashgan. Nihoyat, italiyalik amerikaliklar odamlarni amerikalik ekanliklariga ishontirishdi va endi bu dushmanlarning hammasi narsalarni talon-taroj qilish uchun kelishdi. Biroq, bu uzoq davom etmadi va qisqa vaqt ichida inshootlar yaqinidagi katolik cherkovlari erkaklarni yakshanba kechki ovqat, raqs va sayohatga taklif qilishdi. Nyu -York shtatida yashovchilar muzeylarga, Bronks hayvonot bog'iga, Empire State Building va Nyu -Yorkning odatiy sayyohlik joylariga sayohat qilishdi. Qolgan barcha shtatlardagi barcha ijtimoiy va madaniy tadbirlar NONSga rad etildi.

Benicia Arsenal -da italiyalik harbiy asirlar tomonidan qurilgan Bocce maydoni

Kaliforniyaliklar uchun Yaponiya haqiqiy dushman edi. Kaliforniyadagi dehqonlar va sharob ishlab chiqaruvchilar yurtida italiyalik askarlar iliq kutib olindi. Erkaklar dalada yoki baliqchilik qayig'ida ishlaydilar, oyiga 8,00 dollar oladilar. Katolik cherkovlari o'zlarining diniy va ijtimoiy ehtiyojlarini qondirdilar.

Italiya harbiy asirlari urushga millionlab soatlik mehnat qo'shdilar. Ular fermer xo'jaliklari, novvoylar, ariq qazuvchilar, dock ishlari, yuk mashinalari, vagonlar uchun yuk tashuvchilar, o'z lagerlari joylashgan jamoalarning ehtiyojlarini qondirishgan.

Italiya harbiy asirlari tomonidan ijro etilgan san'at asari

Italiyalik mahbuslar uchun lagerlar deyarli jannat edi. Garchi, ayniqsa, NONSga nisbatan yomon muomala qilish hollari bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, ular toza kazarmalarda saqlanar, issiq dush, mo'l -ko'l oziq -ovqat bor edi va ular o'z ishlaridan tejagan pullarini mahalliy PXda sarflashlari mumkin edi. Ma'lumotli ofitserlar ko'pincha bo'sh vaqtlarida kitoblar, yozma qog'ozlar va idishlar, rasm, haykaltaroshlik, yog'ochga ishlov berish uchun materiallar sotib oladilar. Bu ko'nikmalar bilan ular qo'shimcha pul ham topdilar. Ular metallolomdan zargarlik buyumlari yasashdi, o'z tajribasini topmoqchi bo'lganlar uchun mebel va shkaflar yasashdi, portretlar va hatto cherkovlar uchun diniy fresklarni chizishdi. Ko'pincha, ular ish uchun pul olmaydilar.

Hereford ibodatxonasi to'liq tiklandi

Urush tugashiga oz vaqt qolganida beshta italiyalik mahbus Texasning Xereford shahrida vafot etdi. Ular kasallik, baxtsiz hodisa yoki yomon muomaladan vafot etgani noma'lum. Biz bilamizki, Hereforddagi NONS u erda o'z zobitlari bilan uchrashish uchun ibodatxona qurgan. Cherkov tozalangan g'isht, shisha singan va ortiqcha materiallardan qurilgan. Ular o'z pullariga qurbongoh, ikkita frantsuz eshiklari va vitray oynalar sotib olishdi. Ular bir necha hafta ichida uylariga yuborilishini bilishgani uchun, ular uzoq va tinimsiz ishlashdi va uch hafta ichida chiroyli ibodatxonani qurishdi.

Oxir -oqibat, ibodatxona vayronaga aylandi, lekin u yaqinda tiklandi. Bu g'urur makkajo'xori maydonining o'rtasida turibdi, bu urush paytida ular turgan 800 gektar maydonda yashab vafot etgan italiyalik ofitserlarning guvohligi. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida Italiya uchun jang qilgan va AQShga mahbus sifatida olib kelingan jasur italyan erkaklarini unutmaylik!


Italiyaga qarshi

Umumiy uyushma tufayli ba'zi italiyalik amerikaliklar mafiya haqidagi barcha filmlar yoki ko'rsatuvlarni italyan amerikaliklari uchun potentsial zararli deb bilishadi. Ba'zi italiyalik amerikaliklar shouning stereotipik tabiati haqida shikoyat qilishganda, bu HBO telekanalining "The Sopranos" shousida muammoga aylandi. Boshqa italiyaliklar, agar ular mafiyani italyan -amerikalik hayotining odatiy yoki qabul qilingan qismi sifatida ko'rsatsa, bunday namoyishlar muammoli deb hisoblaydilar.

Ammo, ehtimol, qisman ommaviy axborot vositalarida mafiya tasvirlangani sababli, italiyaliklar zo'ravon, sotsiopatik va pichoq bilan yuradigan gangsterlar va ko'cha shafqatsizlari kabi stereotiplarga ega bo'lishdi. Bu stereotip italiyaliklarni ishchi sinfining bezorilari sifatida tasvirlashdan tortib, zo'ravonlik va "muhojirlargacha", "mafiosi" gacha.

Boshqa stereotiplar italiyaliklarni haddan tashqari hissiyotli, melodramatik, plebey, xurofotli, issiq qonli, tajovuzkor, nodon, ovqatga berilib ketgan, jinoyatchilikka va mayda-chuyda narsalarga qasos olishga moyil sifatida tasvirlaydi. Italiyaliklarning haddan tashqari ko'payishidan qo'rqish, Margaret Sangerning tug'ilishni nazorat qilishni rag'batlantirishida kichik rol o'ynadi. Ba'zida italiyalik erkaklar "italyan ayg'irlari" yoki "latin sevuvchilar" deb stereotip qilinadi, urg'ochilar esa haddan tashqari matriarxal yoki shahvoniy, nazokatli va ekzotik stereotipga ega. Italiyaliklar ko'pincha etnik hazillar, parodiyalar va ayrim stereotiplar tufayli kamsitilishlarga duch kelishadi.

Amerikada va boshqa ko'plab xalqlarda, italiyaliklar ham quyi sinfga mansub, abadiy chet elliklar sifatida qabul qilingan, ular ko'k yoqali ish bilan cheklangan. Ular qurilish ishchilari, oshpazlar, tilanchilar, sotuvchilar, chilangarlar va boshqa ishchi sinflarida ishlaydilar. Italiyalik amerikaliklarning yana bir stereotipi - bu "ishchi" sinf yoki past sinf italiyalik erkak. O'z jamoalarida, italiyalik amerikaliklarning o'zi, ba'zida "bufunga o'xshash" italyan erkaklarini "telefonlar" deb atashadi. "Kafone" - italyancha so'z bo'lib, dastlab "dehqon" degan ma'noni anglatadi, lekin uning ma'nosi qo'pol, johil, beadab odamlarga, xususan janubdan kelganlarga nisbatan paydo bo'lgan. Jaholatni va tarixiy afsonalarni abadiylashtirishda kamsituvchi va hatto insonparvarlik obrazlari keng tarqalgan.

Italiyaliklarga qarshi ko'plab etnik stereotiplar asrlar davomida ishlatilgan. XVI asrda Shveytsariyaning isloh qilingan cherkovini tuzishga yordam bergan frantsuz islohotchisi Jon Kalvin italiyaliklarni dangasa, ikki yuzli va yolg'onchi deb qoraladi.

Amerika fuqarolar urushidan so'ng, ba'zi kambag'al italiyalik muhojirlar janubiy plantatsiyalarda ishlash orqali bekor qilingan qul ishchilarining o'rnini to'ldirishdi, shimoldagi italiyaliklar ko'pincha ter do'konlarida va fabrikalarda ishlashgan. Italiyalik amerikalikning mehnatkash rolini o'ynashi ko'plab stereotiplarning paydo bo'lishiga yordam berdi. Ko'pgina amerikaliklar qoramtir, qoramtir italiyaliklarni oq va qoralar o'rtasidagi "o'tkazuvchan bo'g'in" deb bilishardi. Janubning ba'zi hududlarida, shuningdek, shimolda, italiyaliklar yarim-ajratilgan. Ko'plab amerikaliklar italiyalik muhojirlarni past darajadagi jinoyatchilar va Shimoliy Amerikaga kiruvchi kiruvchi odamlar deb hisoblashgan. 1921 yilda Kongress irqchilik asosidagi kvotani qabul qilib, har yili AQShga kirishga ruxsat berilgan italiyaliklar sonini chekladi. Kvota 1965 yilgacha bekor qilinmagan.

Bundan tashqari, protestantlar jamiyatida italiyaliklar bilan katolik axloqsizligi, xususan qimor, buzuqlik va zo'ravonlikning salbiy qiyofasi o'rtasida birlashma paydo bo'ldi. Bu holatlar, ayniqsa, Neapolitan yoki Kalabriya va Sitsiliya kelib chiqishi kabi Janubiy Italiyadan kelgan odamlarga nisbatan stereotip va kamsitishlarga to'g'ri keladi. Kambag'al janubiy italiyalik muhojirlar o'ziga xos tashqi ko'rinishi va madaniyati, past maoshli ishlarda ishlashga tayyorligi va italiyaliklarning mafiosolik stereotipi tufayli ko'pincha qo'rqishgan yoki ishonmagan.

Sotsiologik nuqtai nazardan, anti-italiyaliklarning eng katta umumiy xususiyati-bu boshqa madaniyatlar va turmush tarziga nisbatan etarlicha ta'sir qilmaslik, johillik va paroxializm. Amerikalik etnosentrik munosabat va "kvotnativizm" ko'pincha irqiy shovinizmning bir shakli bo'lib, bunday noto'g'ri qarashlarga katta hissa qo'shgan. Nemis-amerikalik va irland-amerikalik guruhlar ko'pincha italiyaliklarga (va & quot; quotswarthy & quot; yoki ingliz bo'lmagan qora tanli bo'lmagan chet elliklarga, o'z navbatida, yunon, arab va ispan muhojirlarini o'z ichiga olgan) dushmanliklarida, ayniqsa, vahshiylar sifatida tilga olingan, lekin bu da'vo qilinmagan. Bu guruhlarga xos bo'lgan dalillar, chunki rad etishning bu shakli tarixiy ravishda Shimoliy Evropaning barcha etnik guruhlarida, xususan, ingliz va amerikalik amerikaliklar amerikaliklar orasida qayd etilgan. Dushman irqiy yoki etnik stereotiplarda bo'lgani kabi, italiyaliklarning nafaqat Amerikaga, balki jahon tsivilizatsiyasiga san'at, musiqa, fan, matematika, hukumat va huquq, shahar va infratuzilmaviy qurilish va hatto oshpazlik an'analariga qo'shgan ulkan hissasi. , unutiladi yoki ataylab e'tiborga olinmaydi.

Italiyaliklarga qarshi zo'ravonlik

AQShda italiyalik muhojirlar o'ta xurofot, irqchilik va ko'p hollarda zo'ravonlikka duchor bo'lgan. 1800-yillar va 20-asr boshlarida ingliz bo'lmagan va oq tanli bo'lmagan italiyalik amerikaliklar linzaga uchragan ikkinchi etnik guruh edi.

Amerika tarixidagi eng katta ommaviy linchalash Nyu -Orlean shahrida o'n bir italiyalikni linch qilish bilan bog'liq edi. Politsiya boshlig'i Devid Xennesiga suiqasd uyushtirilgan italiyaliklar qamoqxonaga bostirib kirgan linch to'dasi tomonidan vahshiylarcha o'ldirilishidan oldin hibsga olindi va qamoqxonaga joylashtirildi, guvohlarning aytishicha, quvnoqlik deyarli quloqni quloqqa solmaydi. Qo'zg'olon va qichqiriqlar butun g'alayon davomida eshitildi. Voqea haqida xabar berar ekan, bitta gazeta & quot; Kichkina qamoqxona sitsiliyaliklar bilan gavjum edi, ularning peshonalari, qorong'i terisi, jirkanch yuzlari va bejirim kiyimlari shafqatsiz tabiatini e'lon qildi & quot; Shundan so'ng, ko'pchiligi jinoyatchi bo'lmagan yuzlab italiyalik muhojirlar huquq -tartibot idoralari tomonidan hibsga olingan. O'n yillar o'tgach, Italiyaga qarshi "Kim boshlig'ini o'ldiradi?" Iborasi Yangi Orlean hududida mashhur bo'lib qoldi.

1920 -yillarda ikkita italyan anarxisti, Sakko va Vanzetti, italiyaliklarning kelib chiqishi va o'ta siyosiy qarashlari tufayli, xurofot va oxir oqibat o'limni boshdan kechirdilar. Lino qilinmagan bo'lsa -da, Sacco va Vanzetti noto'g'ri ko'rib chiqilgan va ko'plab tarixchilar sudya, hakamlar hay'ati va prokuratura italiyalik muhojirlarga nisbatan o'ta xolis bo'lganiga qo'shiladilar. Oxir -oqibat Sacco va Vanzetti o'limga hukm qilindi, ularga qarshi dalillar yo'qligiga qaramay qotillikda aybdor deb topildi.

Shveytsariyada anti-italyanizm ko'pincha Alfredo Zardini ismli italiyalik muhojirning 1971 yildagi kaltaklanishini keltiradi.

Avstraliyada italiyaga qarshi qo'zg'olonlar ko'p marta italiyalik muhojirlar yoki "wogs" (Janubiy Evropaning avstraliyalik ingliz tili), 1800-yillarning oxiri va 1900-yillarning boshlarida mamlakatga kela boshlaganidan beri ko'p marta sodir bo'lgan.

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida italiyalik amerikalik va italiyalik Kanada internati

Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida, minglab italiyalik amerikaliklar, shuningdek, minglab italiyalik kanadaliklar, amerikaliklar va kanadaliklar, Lotin Amerikasidagi yapon amerikaliklar, nemis amerikaliklar va etnik nemislar bilan birgalikda lagerlarga joylashtirildi. Yana minglab odamlar kuzatuv ostiga olindi yoki mulklari hukumat tomonidan qaytarib olindi.
San -Frantsiskoda yashagan Jo DiMagjoning otasi qayig'i va uyini musodara qildi. Agar Jo DiMagjio beysbol o'yinchisi maqomida bo'lmaganida, otasi katta ehtimol bilan lagerga yuborilgan bo'lardi. Bu davrda Shimoliy Amerikadagi ko'plab Italiyaga tegishli korxonalar vandalizatsiya qilindi va boykot qilindi. Italiyaliklarning ko'pchiligi jismonan hujumga uchragan va qo'rqitilgan. Yaponiyalik amerikaliklardan farqli o'laroq, italiyalik amerikaliklar va italiyalik kanadaliklar hech qachon kompensatsiya olmagan, garchi prezident Bill Klinton AQSh hukumatining internirlanganlik haqidagi noto'g'ri qarorini tan olgan bo'lsa ham.

Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyin italyanlarga qarshi kurash

Italiyaning sobiq jamoalari bir vaqtlar Afrikadagi Eritreya, Somali va Liviya koloniyalarida gullab -yashnagan. 150 mingga yaqin italiyaliklar Liviyada joylashdilar, bu umumiy aholining 18 foizini tashkil qiladi. Liviyaning barcha italiyaliklari 1970 yilda, Muammar al-Qaddafiy hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritganidan bir yil o'tib (1970 yil 7 oktyabrda & quot; intiqom & quot;) Shimoliy Afrika mamlakatidan quvilgan.

Yugoslaviya partizan lideri Marshall Tito Istriya yarim orolini italiyaliklardan olib tashlashni xohladi. 1943 yildan 1945 yilgacha Foibe qirg'inlari deb nomlangan voqeada 25000 italiyalik o'ldirilgan. Ikkinchi jahon urushi tugagach, sobiq Italiya hududlari Istriya va Dalmatiyada, Parij tinchlik shartnomasi (1947) bilan Yugoslaviyaning bir qismi bo'ldi. , asosan italiyaliklar, mintaqani tark etishni tanlaydilar.

2004 yilda italiyalik demokrat amerikalik shifokor va siyosatchi Daniel Mongiardo Kentukki shtatidagi senatorlar saylovida respublikachi Jim Bunninga qarshi kurashdi. Mongiardoning qorong'u xususiyatlariga javoban, Bunning aytishicha, Mongiardo & quot; Saddam Husaynning o'g'illariga o'xshaydi & quot; Keyinchalik Bunnings Mongiardoning & quot; qaroqchilari & quot; uning xotiniga hujum qilganini e'lon qildi. Bu izohlarni ko'pchilik etnik haqorat deb baholadi.

Kanadalik siyosatchi Ed Xavrot, shuningdek, Italiyaga qarshi Kanadalik raqiblaridan birini Ontario Qonunchilik Assambleyasida xizmat qilib, Italiyaga qarshi tuhmatlardan foydalangan.

2008 yil mart oyida, ruhoniy Yeremiya Rayt, maqolasida, italiyaliklar Galileyliklarning "burun burunlari" ga qaraganini ta'kidlab, munozaralarga sabab bo'ldi. Italiyalik amerikaliklarning qo'shma fuqarolik qo'mitasi bu izohda "quadadadeded", Italiya -Amerika insoniy aloqalar jamg'armasi buni "quothatred" ning namunasi deb atadi.

* Katoliklikka qarshi
*
* Guido (jargon)
*Gvineya (etnik haqorat)
* Istrianning chiqib ketishi
* Italiya xalqi
* Italyan amerikalik
* Mafiya
* Sacco va Vanzetti
* Irqchilik
* Voy
* Vog
* Alfredo Zardini

Qo'shimcha o'qish

* Genri Xeller. & quot; XVI asrda Frantsiyada anti-italyanizm & quot; Toronto, Toronto universiteti matbuoti, 2003. xii, 307 pp
* Smit, Tom. Crescent City Lynchings: Bosh Hennessining o'ldirilishi, Nyu -Orlean & quot; Mafiya & quot; sinovlari va Parish qamoqxonasi mobi [http://www.crescentcitylynchings.com]

Tashqi havolalar

* http://www.zmag.org/sustainers/content/2005-06/13parenti.cfm
* http://www.rps.psu.edu/0405/dark.html
* http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-8715(196607%2F09)79%3A313%3C475%3AARINE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7
* http://www.ssn.flinders.edu.au/spis/journals/KarenAgutter.pdf
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=hWkQNm6MOxQC&pg=PP1&dq=On+Persecution,+Identity+%26+Activisim&ei=CifeRvWdJ6WQ7wLv-f3LDw&sig=AN44PP88]

[http://www.italianstudies.org/iam/Gesualdi_6.htm Izohli bibliografiya - 6 -bet]] Feagan va Feagan, 2003. 79-81, 92-93]

[http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0057.html G'azablangan oq ayol: Margaret Sangerning zo'ravon irqi] ]

Lord, Eliot. Amerikadagi italyan [Proksi-ulanish: keep-зиндаCache-Control: max-age = 0

LaGumina, Salvatore Jon. Voy !: Qo'shma Shtatlardagi italyanlarga qarshi kamsitishning hujjatli tarixi.http://books.google.com/books?id=qFtgLMQnL68C&pg=PA1&ots=xXKe-cpMX0&dq=anti-italian&sig=6foRmrHKL3iA_HG3M78cRo_XBsM#PPP1,M1] ]

Gambino, Richard. Mening qonim: italiyalik amerikaliklarning dilemmasi [http://books.google.com/books?]] Sowell, Tomas. Ethnic America: A History [http://books.google.com/books?id=lpT69mf8REUC&pg=PP1&ots=3jTq1CiGPX&dq=ethnic+america&sig=TNePXARdBNuS1Boo40bRQbLnSUg] ]

Rappaport, Doreen, "The Sacco-Vanzetti Trial", New York: HarperTrophy, 1994, c1993. KF224.R36 1994x.]

Many Australians viewed the Italian immigrants as "immoral", "low", and "dirty". O'Connor, Desmond. http://books.google.com/books?id=dECY9RIn9-MC&pg=PP1&ots=gZDhF5UDvG&dq=no+need+to+be+afraid&sig=XAltZU4HQh3KV_nEIbjL5ix5lVo#PPA62,M1]

[ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46562/Libya Libya - Italian colonization] ]

Di Stasi, Lawrence (2004). Una Storia Segreta: The Secret History of Italian American Evacuation and Internment during World War II. Heyday Books. ISBN 1890771406.]

[ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080327/ts_nm/usa_politics_obama_pastor_dc_2] ] [ [http://www.nbc5.com/politics/15726560/detail.html Rev. Wright Slurs Italians In 2007 Eulogy - Politics News Story - WMAQ | Chikago ] ]

[ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4380360.stm Libya cuts ties to mark Italy era.] ]

[ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DEEDB1439F935A35755C0A961948260 Election Opens Old Wounds In Trieste] ] [ [http://press.princeton.edu/titles/7366.html History in Exile: Memory and Identity at the Borders of the Balkans] ]

[ [http://dir.salon.com/story/news/feature/2004/10/12/bunning_kentucky/index.html Weirdness in Kentucky - Salon.com ] ]

Claire Hoy, "Bill Davis", (Toronto: Methuen Publications, 1985), p. 255.]


When the U.S. Interned Italians in Montana, They Rioted Over Olive Oil

Montana

It started with suet. Some say camp administrators decided that Italian internees should cook with suet instead of olive oil to cut costs. Others say lower ranking internees, who had been crew members on the ships they were taken from, suspected that former officers were getting olive oil while they were stuck with beef fat. Either way, tensions hit a breaking point when a group of angry internees charged into the kitchen.

“They were swinging suet at the cooks,” says Carol Van Valkenburg, a Professor Emerita at the University of Montana School of Journalism who wrote a history of the Missoula internment.

It was the summer of 1941 in Fort Missoula, Montana. The United States would soon be at war. Approximately 1,200 Italian nationals, most of them sailors on boats stranded in American waters or employees of the Italian Pavilion at the 1939 World’s Fair, had been rounded up by the American government as “enemy aliens” and brought to Fort Missoula. The Italians called the camp Bella Vista, meaning beautiful view, but during the early months of their stay, when rules on visits to town were stricter, their view was marred by barbed wire.

Interned Italians cook in the Fort Missoula kitchen. The Peter Fortune Memorial Collection, Courtesy of the Historical Museum at Fort Missoula Collections

In some versions of the olive oil tale, the Italians were so angry they rioted in the mess. Guards rushed in and sprayed tear gas to break up the fight, and in the chaos, a watchtower guard accidentally shot himself in the foot. According to Van Valkenburg, however, the olive oil agitation didn’t escalate, and the tear gas spraying and accidental self-shooting occurred during a more serious riot between the pro- and anti-fascist internees at the camp.

Nevertheless, food was serious business for the Italians at Fort Missoula, who often complained about the provisions. Unused to canned food, they claimed it was making them sick. Envious of the supposedly superior food eaten by their diabetic counterparts, internees fell victim to a “diabetes epidemic”—until the camp doctor warned them that true diabetics had to undergo uncomfortable treatment. For prisoners far from their homes and families, food mattered.

Italian internees at the hospital ward, Fort Missoula, 1943. The Peter Fortune Memorial Collection, Courtesy of the Historical Museum at Fort Missoula Collections

The Italians at Missoula were just a fraction of the 600,000 Italian Americans whom the U.S. government labeled “enemy aliens” during World War II. Across the West Coast, federal agents placed thousands of Italian immigrants under curfew. Authorities confiscated fishermen’s boats and forced 10,000 of those living close to the California coast to relocate inland. Across the country, intelligence agents surveilled Italian neighborhoods, searching for Mussolini supporters. Immigrants who had made the United States their new home found themselves suspect.

The Italian internees weren’t alone. Missoula held over 100 Germans and 1,000 Japanese Americans, who had been rounded up as part of a much larger surveillance program that the American government had been developing for years.

Baggage of Hiroshi Motoshige, a Japanese internee at Fort Missoula, 1943. The Peter Fortune Memorial Collection, Courtesy of the Historical Museum at Fort Missoula Collections

When the United States entered the war in 1941, the intelligence machinery swung into action. Federal agents forced Japanese Americans from their homes and into camps. Initially, agents targeted Japanese Americans with prominent roles in their communities: newspaper editors, judo teachers, Shinto clergy. But more than for anything they’d done, says Brian Niiya, content director at Densho, an organization dedicated to preserving the memories of interned and incarcerated Japanese Americans, the U.S. government targeted Japanese-American people for their race.

Like many in the field, Niiya and his organization use the word “internment” to describe the status of Japanese Americans rounded up in this earlier wave. They use “incarceration” to describe the later, much larger group of over 117,000 Japanese Americans, many of whom were U.S. citizens, forcefully relocated to camps under Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s racist 1942 executive order.

Postcard from the Rev. K. Iijima to Kinuta Uno, interned at Fort Missoula, 1942 (front). Courtesy of the Kinuta Uno Collection, Densho />Postcard from the Rev. K. Iijima to Kinuta Uno, interned at Fort Missoula, 1942 (back). Courtesy of the Kinuta Uno Collection, Densho

The 1,000 Japanese-Americans interned at Fort Missoula were officially there for “loyalty hearings” conducted by the Department of Justice’s Alien Enemy Hearing Boards. But for Japanese Americans, says Niiya, determinations of loyalty often derived from racial stereotypes.

“There was this sense of racial inscrutability,” says Niiya. “With people of European extraction, there was this idea that you can investigate, you can tell who should be interned and who was okay.” But when it came to the Japanese, he says, “The Japanese people were the enemy, not a particular leader.”

Missoula residents treated the prisoners differently too. While townspeople viewed the Japanese internees with “suspicion,” Van Valkenburg says, “the community accepted the Italians with open arms,” viewing them as “happy-go-lucky.”

This belief extended to the highest echelons of American government, with Roosevelt himself famously declaring Italians to be “a lot of opera singers.” Among the Italian internees at Fort Missoula, the stereotype wasn’t entirely false. The seamen and World’s Fair workers included several musicians, and the Italian internees even performed for the Missoula residents.

Italian internees on agricultural work parole. The Peter Fortune Memorial Collection, Courtesy of the Historical Museum at Fort Missoula Collections

Racial tensions at the camp extended to eating arrangements. Italian and Japanese internees lived in segregated quarters, with separate mess and kitchen facilities. Each group cooked their own food. According to a newspaper account from the time, camp officers provided each group with rations according to their cultural preferences, with “spaghetti, olive oil and garlic for the Italians, and rice, soybeans and fish for the Japanese.” Administrators purchased the Italians’ food from a local grocery store set up by Italian immigrants who had come to work for the railroads.

In 1943, Italy surrendered and soon joined the Allies in fighting its one-time German partner. In 1944, the Italians at Fort Missoula were allowed to go home. Some returned to Italy, delighted to see their mothers again, the local newspaper, The Missoulian, reported. Some stayed in the United States, fearing their native country would have no work. Some remained in Missoula. Alfredo Cipolato, who maintained an Italian deli in Missoula until he was 94 years old, became a town icon.

The Italians left things behind: An archive full of photographs. A train platform full of sobbing local women (two of whom, Van Valkenburg says, discovered during this tearful farewell that they had been dating the same Italian man). At least one child, the fruit of such a union.

They also left positive memories. “There has been no hate toward the Italian people and there has been not the slightest desire to punish the Italian people for the misdeeds of their criminal leaders,” an editorialist wrote in the Missoulian newspaper in 1943.

An Italian internee with his local admirer. Archives and Special Collections, Mansfield Library, University of Montana/Used with Permission

But for the Japanese internees, Missoula was only the first stop in a long journey that, for survivors and descendants who live with the historical trauma of incarceration, continues today.

Many of the Japanese Americans interned at Fort Missoula went on to what Niiya and his organization refer to as concentration camps: the 10 crowded, desolate camps operated by the War Relocation Authority, in which Japanese Americans were incarcerated solely for their race.

Food mattered at those camps, too. For many incarcerated people, the American food served in camp messes was not only bland and of low nutritional value, but a sign of the assimilation forced upon the community by the United States government. In several camps, incarcerated Japanese Americans protested on the suspicion that white kitchen workers were stealing incarcerated people’s rations. In Utah’s Topaz camp, which suffered from meat scarcities, residents agitated against the serving of organ meat. Eventually, Japanese Americans used the camps’ coercive agricultural work programs and their own resourcefulness to become self-reliant, growing vegetables, raising livestock, and making staple foods like tofu.

Japanese internees cook in the Fort Missoula kitchens. The Peter Fortune Memorial Collection, Courtesy of the Historical Museum at Fort Missoula Collections

For Niiya, interned and incarcerated people’s agitations over food were about more than taste. “It may not seem so to us, but for that population it was a really important thing,” Niiya says of the Italians’ aversion to suet. “Just like the Japanese eating the organ meat: It would keep you alive, it would feed you, but it was just repulsive to a lot of the population.”

By agitating for familiar foods, interned and incarcerated people demanded more than just to stay alive: They demanded lives of dignity.

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It wasn’t just Japanese Americans, Germans and Italians were impacted by WWII Executive Order 9066, too

Sigrid Toye woke in the middle of the night to the wail of a siren.

It was Dec. 7, 1941 – the day the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.

Sitting upright on her bed in her second-floor room at the family’s house in Los Feliz, the 4-year-old Toye looked down the hallway and saw nothing but darkness.

What she also didn’t see – but would soon learn – was that her German-born father, Eugen Banzhaf, was under arrest.

“It was frightening,” recalls Toye, now 79.

And unexpected. While FBI agents were rounding up some Japanese-American men in the hours after the Pearl Harbor attack, they also launched a sweep of German-born men. Her father would be one of about 11,000 people of German ancestry, joined by a few thousand Italian nationals, who eventually were interned.

Toye ran downstairs and found her mother sitting quietly on the couch. Her eyes were swollen from crying. Then she told Toye how men had come to the door and taken her father away.

“I didn’t understand,” Toye recalls. She knew her parents were German citizens and that Germany was involved in the war in Europe.

But what did that have to do with her family?

𠆊lien enemies’

The story of Executive Order 9066 – signed 75 years ago on Sunday, Feb. 19 – and the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans is well-known, but few remember the order also applied to some German and Italian families.

Though they were not held in camps like the Japanese Americans, several hundred German and Italian Americans were forced to move away from coastal areas as a result of individual exclusion orders.

“They weren’t put in camps, but they had to leave the West Coast and get away from the coastline by 150 miles,” says Stephen Fox, a professor emeritus at Humboldt State University and author of “The Unknown Internment: An Oral History of the Relocation of Italian Americans during World War II” and 𠇊gainst All Enemies: The United States v. German Americans in World War II.”

Fox said Germans and Italians were not incarcerated en masse like the Japanese for the same reason the Japanese in Hawaii were not held — they were a big and growing part of the economy.

“The Italians and Germans were a hugely greater number of the population and they were in occupations that were part of the larger economy.”

Conversely, most Japanese nationals were ineligible for citizenship and were prohibited from owning land, whereas Germans and Italians could still be naturalized.

“On the west coast, the Japanese were completely isolated and vulnerable,” Fox added. “There was no avenue for them to assimilate into a greater America.”

Still, as with the its push against the Japanese, the government’s actions against Germans and Italians began with presidential proclamations issued immediately after Pearl Harbor.

Pursuant to the Alien Enemy Act of 1798, which remains in effect today, the government may apprehend and deport 𠇊lien enemies” upon declaration of war, an invasion or the threat of an attack.

On Dec. 7 and 8, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed identical proclamations formally designating natives and citizens of Japan, Germany and Italy as 𠇊lien enemies,” restricting their movements and authorizing their arrest.

More than 6,600 Japanese, Germans and Italians from Latin America also were deported and interned in the United States on the basis of “hemispheric security,” according to the National Archives and Records Administration website. By the end of the war, more than 31,000 suspected enemy aliens and their families had been interned at detention stations and military facilities across the country.

“Not a single person was ever charged with a crime,” Fox said, adding that their only 𠇌rime” was their nationality.

‘Who she was’

Most of the people held were men. But due to economic concerns, some wives and children voluntarily joined them.

Toye says she always wondered if she and her mother would have been better off at the family detention center in Crystal City, Texas.

After her father was taken, the government confiscated his steel import business and took over his personal finances. They had to sell the house in Los Feliz and move to Echo Park.

“We didn’t have a whole lot of food and nobody wanted to hire my mom. She did get a couple of jobs, but she always got fired. She had a very heavy accent.”

Eugen Banzhaf was released after three years. But he was on parole and, as a parolee, he had a tough time finding work in post-war America.

Like the Japanese, Toye and other German Americans faced raw discrimination. Kids at school called Toye a Nazi. People spat on her mom when they were in public.

“There was nothing she could do and she wasn’t at fault. She couldn’t help herself for being who she was.”


On Jan. 14, 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation No. 2537, which required Americans of Japanese, German and Italian descent to register with the U.S. Department of Justice. This was a precursor to the imprisonment of people who had committed no crime, based solely on their ancestry.

Those who registered were photographed and fingerprinted and issued a Certificate of Identification for Aliens of Enemy Nationality card. They were required to have the card with them at all times their movements were restricted and they were subjected to curfew regulations. They were also required to surrender any cameras and shortwave radios they owned.

Round-up and internment in concentration camps began one month later with the issuance of Executive Order 9066.

Almost everyone has heard of the Japanese-American internment. Almost all the Japanese-Americans on the West coast — some 120,000 in all — were forced to abandon their homes and businesses, incarcerated and transferred to prison camps in California, Wyoming, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Utah and Arkansas. These included Americans of Japanese descent who had fought for the U.S. in World War I, and some who had enlisted to fight in World War II.

The mass incarceration was carried out despite an Office of Naval Intelligence study’s conclusion that the vast majority of Japanese-Americans posed no threat to national security and that the few who did had already been identified and were in custody or under surveillance.

German- and Italian-Americans were likewise incarcerated under order No. 9066, but to a lesser degree than the Japanese. About 11,500 Germans and 1,881 Italians were interned across the country. But it wasn’t enough for the U.S. government to illegally imprison Germans living in the United States. America trolled Latin American countries, scarfed up German nationals living peacefully across Central and South America, and plopped them into U.S. prison camps.

Most of those imprisoned were held for the duration of the war. After their release, they returned to find their homes and businesses ransacked, destroyed or stolen from them. A number of Japanese farmers returned to California only to discover white Americans had taken over their farms and refused to give them back.

The authority created out of thin air by FDR to mass incarcerate innocent people without trial and in violation of the 5 th Amendment was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. The solicitor general withheld the report from the Office of Naval Intelligence from the court, in violation of law. Some of the Japanese were later paid reparations, but the Germans and Italians were not.

The government has claimed the same authority to imprison Americans without trial under the (un)Patriot Act and the unlawful detention act found in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA).

All that stands between liberty lovers — or anyone else, for that matter – and similar treatment is the whim of a president who, thanks to FDR and SCOTUS, has the “authority” to place anyone in concentration camps in America for reasons of “national security,” or any reason he may conjure up in his tyrannical mind.


Clark County History: Italian POWs

After Italy's surrender in 1943, the Allies sent Italian prisoners of war to the U.S. Some came to Vancouver to wait out the end of the war. The POWs followed the barracks military schedule and discipline. They wore khaki uniforms with "Italy" patches on the left sleeve. Those with specialized skills put their experience to use for the Army. The rest labored at Vancouver Barracks on anything the military needed. The men in this photo appear to be in a woodworking shop. The POWs stayed until 1946 working at the barracks, Camp Hathaway and Camp Bonneville. (Contributed by U.S. Signal Corps)

An Italian soldier who fought for Mussolini oddly rests among American soldiers’ graves at the Vancouver Barracks Post Cemetery. Vincenzo Dioguardi arrived in Vancouver with other prisoners of war. He wasn’t a casualty of brutal POW conditions. No, a passenger in an Army jeep, the 36-year-old died when it crashed. Dioguardi was the only POW death during the internment of Italian soldiers here in Clark County.

In 1942, the Allies decided that any enemy soldiers captured would be the United States’ responsibility. After Benito Mussolini’s death and Italy’s surrender in 1943, that country was no longer an enemy. Regardless, the Army shipped nearly 51,000 Italian POWs to 27 internment camps in 23 states. One site was Vancouver. In 1944, the War Department renamed these camps Italian Service Units. The POWs stayed in old barracks buildings or at Camp Hathaway, located about where Clark College is today. African American soldiers headed overseas formerly used the camp as housing.

Living in the barracks, Dioguardi and other POWs started their days early and followed routines and discipline similar to U.S. soldiers. Despite imprisonment, the Italians’ attitudes remained upbeat, for their war had ended.

The POWs worked on-base and off-base as military need demanded. Some labored as gardeners, carpenters, warehousemen, launderers, dock workers, even cooks. They received payment for any work. Officers collected $40 and enlisted men $24 a month. One-third of their income came as cash, and the rest issued as script redeemable at the post exchange or theater. Financially aware prisoners could deposit theirs in a trust account.

War Department rules permitted POWs off-base “liberty” — if escorted by a soldier or sponsor. Sgt. Bill Morehouse and others accompanied Italians on weekend trips or invited them to Italian American homes for meals, church and other events. On weekends, the unarmed Morehouse often waited outside local restaurants for his wards because, as an African American, managemen t wouldn’t let him in to eat.

Dioguardi’s death in a jeep crash Nov. 22, 1945, occurred just two months before his fellow POWs returned home in February 1946.


The sport that many in internment camps credited with saving them

Those confined to incarceration camps did the best they could to help life go on as normal, and that included setting up schools. They were usually incredibly crowded, says the Digital Public Library of America, and supplies were next to non-existent, but it still gave students the basics: math, science, social studies. and along with that? The War Relocation Authority insisted that students also be schooled in American values.

But more important than education? Baseball. Many camps had their own "official" baseball teams, and they were even allowed to travel. In 1944, Gila River took on Heart Mountain in a 13-game series and won. and that sounds like a sentence that could apply to any kind of sport. But Gila River and Heart Mountains were internment camps. And it was about more than just sport, says the National Museum of American History: it was also a way for immigrants to participate in a truly American pastime.

One of those incarcerated in the camps was George Omachi. Not only did he say, "Without baseball, camp life would have been miserable," but he went on to become a scout for MLB. Other stars came out of the camps, too: like Kenichi Zenimura, who was known as the Dean of the Diamond, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame for his work in desegregating the game (via KVPR).


Demand an Apology from Congress for the Mistreatment of Italian Americans During WWII

During World War II, the United States government interned, relocated, and confiscated the property of thousands of Italian Americans. Hundreds of Italians were arrested, put on a train with darkened windows, and sent to internment camps across the United States. Thousands were arrested and taken into custody, many without a warrant. 10,000 Italians were relocated and forced from their homes, including the elderly and immobile. 600,000 Italians were classified as "enemy aliens" and faced movement restrictions, curfews, job loss, and property confiscation.

The federal government has never apologized for these civil liberty violations. The National Italian American Foundation (NIAF) wants to change that.

On December 1, 2015, Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren of California introduced H.R. 4146 and H.R. 4147. The first bill requests funds to provide grants for education programs on the history of Italian Americans during World War II. The latter asks for an official apology for the mistreatment of Italian Americans during that time.

In 2000, Congress directed the Attorney General to conduct an extensive review of Italian American treatment during World War II. In 2001, the Justice Department released its report, outlining the injustices committed against Italians living in the United States in the 1940's. It's now 15 years later. There has been no follow up and no official apology.

Acknowledging, apologizing for, and studying the treatment of Italian Americans during World War II will help repair the Italian American community and discourage the occurrence of similar injustices and violations of civil liberties in the future. The federal government must safeguard civil liberties and protect the freedom guaranteed by the Constitution. This is about more than Italian Americans. This is about all of us.


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